Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm-China Lawyer http://law523.cn Our Law Firm provides legal services for foreign customers on International Trade, Intellectual Property, Investment in China and other affairs such as marriage and family, property inheritance, etc. Thu, 24 Aug 2017 09:53:01 +0000 zh-CN hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.7.5 Lawyer Cooperation Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 If you are a lawyer in your country and need to work with a Chinese lawyer to handle a case in China, please contact us.


Email: info@zhengyunlawyer.com 

WhatsApp: 008618329190921

Wechat: 008618329190921

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Letter to customer Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 Contacting the firm is free. We understand that the disputes facing you, your company or your business can seem daunting. It is our goal to put you at ease. Our services are described as below.

 

International Trade Dispute Legal Service

1.    Filing a lawsuit against any issue in InternationalTrade transactions on behalf of a client.

2.    Initiating a claim on behalf of a customer forproduct quality problems arising from International Trade transactions.

3.    Handling disputes on behalf of a client on Bills ofLading.

4.    Initiating a lawsuit against shipping companies,freight forwarders or suppliers for cargo transportation problems on behalf of aclient during International Trade transactions.

5.    Drafting, reviewing, amending and translating legaldocuments such as contracts, agreements and memoranda of International Trade.

6.    Issuing a lawyer's letter on behalf of a client tothe opposite party or negotiating with the opposite party on behalf of a clientin the event of a dispute in a certain part of International Tradetransactions.

7.   Debt collection on behalf of a client.

8.   Other disputes concerning International Trade contracts.

 

MultinationalIntellectual Property Dispute Legal Service

1.    Registering foreign customers’brands on behalf of a client in China Customs Intellectual Property ProtectionSystem.

2.    Making IPR protection plan for aclient.

3.    Investigation of IPR infringementfor a client.

4.    Advice on technical contracts.

5.    Filing an Intellectual Propertylawsuit on behalf of a client.

 

Investment in China Legal Advice

1.   Legal advice on company establishment andproject investment, covering government policies related to environmentalprotection, social insurance, etc.

2.   Business negotiation


Should you need any support or have any questions please feel free to contact us.



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Service Fee Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 Our service fee standard is as below.


International Trade Dispute Legal Service

1. Filing a lawsuit against any issue in International Trade transactions on behalf of a client.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum3000 US dollars.

2. Initiating a claim on behalf of a customer for product quality problems arising from International Trade transactions.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000US dollars.

3. Handling disputes on behalf of a client on Bills of Lading.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000US dollars.

4. Initiating a lawsuit against shipping companies, freight forwarders or suppliers for cargo transportation problems on behalf of a client during International Trade transactions.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum3000 US dollars.

5. Drafting,reviewing, amending and translating legal documents such as contracts,agreements and memoranda of International Trade.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 500US dollars.

6. Issuing a lawyer's letter on behalf of a client to the opposite party or negotiating with the opposite party on behalf of a client in the event of a dispute in a certain part of International Trade transactions.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 500US dollars.

7. Debt collection on behalf of a client.

Service fee:10%-50% of the object amount, minimum 500US dollars.

8. Other disputes concerning International Trade contracts.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 500US dollars.

 

Intellectual Property Dispute Legal Service

1. Registering foreign customers’ brands on behalf of a client in the China Customs Intellectual Property Protection System.

Service fee: minimum 500 US dollars.

2. Making IPR protection plan for a client.

Service fee: 1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

3. Investigation of IPR infringement for a client.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

4. Advice on technical contracts.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

5. Filing an Intellectual Property lawsuit on behalf of a client.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

6. Apply for a patent on behalf of a client.

Service fee: minimum 2000 US dollars.


Legal Advice on Investment in China 

1. Legal advice on company establishment and project investment, covering government policies related to environmental protection, social insurance, etc.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

2.  Business negotiation.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

3.   Legality and compliance review on an investment.

Service fee: 1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

4.   Risk control for an investment.

Service fee: 1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.


Other Foreign affairs

1. Marriage and family.

Service fee: negotiable.

2. Property inheritance.

Service fee: negotiable.

3. Legal counsel for foreign companies.

Service fee: negotiable.

4. Other affairs.

Service fee: negotiable.



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Practice Areas Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 We are lawyers in China. Our services are described as below but our service content and categories are not limited to the following descriptions. As long as you have any cases, you can contact us.

 

International Trade Dispute Legal Service

1.    Filing a lawsuit against any issue in International Trade transactions on behalf of a client.

2.    Initiating a claim on behalf of a customer for product quality problems arising from International Trade transactions.

3.    Handling disputes on behalf of a client on Bills ofLading.

4.    Initiating a lawsuit against shipping companies,freight forwarders or suppliers for cargo transportation problems on behalf of a client during International Trade transactions.

5.    Drafting, reviewing, amending and translating legal documents such as contracts, agreements and memoranda of International Trade.

6.    Issuing a lawyer's letter on behalf of a client to the opposite party or negotiating with the opposite party on behalf of a client in the event of a dispute in a certain part of International Tradetransactions.

7.   Debt collection on behalf of a client.

8.   Other disputes concerning International Trade contracts.

 

Intellectual Property Dispute Legal Service

1.    Registering foreign customers’ brands on behalf of a client in China Customs Intellectual Property Protection System.

2.    Making IPR protection plan for a client.

3.    Investigation of IPR infringement for a client.

4.    Advice on technical contracts.

5.    Filing an Intellectual Property lawsuit on behalf of a client.

6.    Apply for a patent on behalf of a client.

 

Legal Advice on Investment in China 

1.   Legal advice on company establishment and project investment, covering government policies related to environmental protection, social insurance, etc.

2.   Business negotiation.

3.   Legality and compliance review on an investment.

4.   Risk control for an investment.


Other Foreign affairs

1. Marriage and family.

2. Property inheritance.

3. Legal counsel for foreign companies.

4. Other affairs.


Should you need any support or have any questions please feel free to write to info@zhengyunlawyer.com  or click "Contact Us".

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About Us Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800     Founded in 2009, Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm, with a team of dedicated and qualified lawyers, is a professional law firm based in Hangzhou, China. The law firm provides a wide range of legal services to foreign clients, including legal services on International Trade dispute, International Intellectual Property dispute and foreign companies' investment in China.


History of the firm:

    Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm was established in 2009 by Zhejiang Provincial Department of Justice. The firm is adjacent to the beautiful Xixi Wetland, with elegant office environment and convenient transportation. The firm is headed by Zhu Qingliang, a senior lawyer who has been practicing for nearly 20 years. The law firm has more than ten full-time lawyers. Adhering to the spirit of “excellent firm”, the firm has gradually formed a professional team through the development of nearly ten years.

Advantages of the firm:

    First, the firm is good at handling difficult, major criminal cases, civil and commercial cases.

    Second, the firm has established cooperative relationships with well-known scholars in some colleges and universities through various channels. We practice through new legal theories and actively optimize existing resources to better provide legal services to customers.

    Third, we have a consultation system for difficult cases. Since the establishment of the firm, it has handled a number of difficult and major cases, and invited well-known jurists to participate in specific cases.
    Fourth, the firm's lawyers are serious and responsible, with a solid theoretical foundation and rich practical experience. They can handle all kinds of litigation and non-litigation cases well and can meet the legal needs of various clients.

Business scope of the firm:

    Provide clients with legal services for international trade disputes, including negotiation, litigation and arbitration.

    Provide clients with legal services on setting up a corporate and investment projects in China.

    Provide clients with civil and economic case litigation agency services and arbitration case agency services.

    Provide legal advisory services to companies.
    Provide personnel, labor and legal relations services for enterprises.
    Venture capital and financing consulting services.
    Full legal services such as construction and real estate development.
    Provide legal assistance, counseling and defense services for various criminal cases.

    Provide other legal services at the request of the client.

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We helped a Swedish customer Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 A Swedish customer signed an International trade contract with a new energy automobile company in Yangzhou, China on September 5, 2018. The contract stipulates that the seller needs to ship the goods within 35 days after the buyer pays the deposit. The Swedish buyer paid a 30% deposit to Yangzhou Company on September 6, 2018. After receiving the deposit, the Yangzhou Company delayed for 8 months without shipping the goods. The Swedish customer contacted our law firm in June 2019 and entrusted us to handle the case. With the help of our lawyers, the Yangzhou Company returned the full deposit on August 5, 2019.


Customer's comments.




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We helped an Afghan customer Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 An Afghan customer signed a contract in June 2018 with a company in Hunan, China. The contract stipulates that the Hunan company exports the ordered products to Afghanistan. The Afghan customer paid the full amount of the order amount to the Hunan company in July 2018. After the Hunan company received the payment, it still did not ship goods after the delivery date. Finally, the company no longer responded to the customer's emails. The Afghan customer contacted our Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm through the Internet in March 2019. The customer described the case to us in detail and entrusted our lawyers to handle the case. After our lawyers took over the case, the lawyers informed the Afghan customer to provide evidences and started working on the case. After four months of work by our lawyers, the Hunan company finally delivered the goods to Afghan customers in July 2019.


Customer's comments.



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Latest China-US trade talks end, revealing fewer details but continuing efforts Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 By Wang Cong Source:Global Times Published: 2019/5/2 15:59:12


Unlike previous rounds of negotiations between Chinese and US trade officials, the latest meetings in Beijing, which ended on Wednesday, had fewer details about specific discussions and results. 


That left many to wonder whether the two economic powers have hit an impasse in the tough talks and whether a trade agreement that would end their yearlong trade tussle is still within reach as it had appeared to be. 


Though there remain some sticky points and tougher obstacles as they approach the end of the extensive talks, one thing remains very clear: Both sides voiced commitment to the talks, Chinese analysts said. And some even argued that fewer details mean they are closer to a deal.


Following the two-day meetings in Beijing, the 10th one since last year, officials on both sides appeared restrained in announcing major progress in discussions over specific issues as they did in the previous rounds.


On Wednesday night, the Xinhua News Agency published a very short report on the talks between Chinese Vice Premier Liu He and US Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin.


It only mentioned that the talks had ended and that the two sides will hold another round of talks in Washington next week as planned.


For its part, the White House said in a statement on Wednesday that "discussions remain focused toward making substantial progress on important structural issues and rebalancing the US-China trade relationship," CNBC reported. But the statement did not offer details on the latest talks.


Tough issues 
 "This is very vague and shows that some tough issues still have to be discussed," said Huo Jianguo, vice chairman of the China Society for World Trade Organization Studies. "I think it reflects the fact that we are at the final stage of the negotiations and things are a lot more difficult at this stage." 


Media reports suggest that the two sides are still discussing key issues on structural issues, such as the US accusation of unfair subsidies in China, a mechanism to verify compliance and what to do with the tariffs the two have already imposed on hundreds of billions of dollars worth of each other's goods.


US officials have floated concessions on the verification and tariff issues, with Mnuchin saying that the US is open to being punished if found violating the potential agreement, and some US media outlets reported that the US would immediately remove a 10-percent duty on part of the $200 billion worth of Chinese goods.


"I think both sides are still eager to reach an agreement, but they also have to be more cautious because things could change," Huo told the Global Times on Thursday.


'No news is good news'
Chen Fengying, a research fellow at the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, said releasing less details from the latest talks is not a bad thing.


"No news is good news," Chen told the Global Times on Thursday, noting that, despite the lack of details from the latest meetings in Beijing, US officials remain optimistic in a potential trade deal. 


The CNBC report on Wednesday cited unnamed sources, saying that an announcement of a trade agreement between China and the US could come as early as next Friday. Mnuchin also suggested recently that a deal could be announced within the next two weeks.


However, Chen said that certain core issues might need to be addressed by the leaders of the two countries. Media reports have suggested that officials of the two sides are also working on a leaders' summit.

Posted in: ECONOMY,CHINA-US

Link: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1148292.shtml


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Despite profound transformation, big powers vie for influence among Central and Eastern European Countries Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 By Zhu Xiaozhong Source:Global Times Published: 2019/5/3 9:57:03 Last Updated: 2019/5/3 13:35:09


The year 2019 marks the 30 years’ transition of Central and Eastern European countries, a region that experienced massive change since 1989. Under the Constitutional framework, the states have established a multi-party parliamentary system, set up separation of powers, held regular elections, and continuously improved the legal system. And most have a functioning market economy that has shown continuous growth. 


Central and Eastern European countries are not only narrowing the gap between their economies and average economic levels of the European Union (EU) nations, but have gradually become a new growth engine for the EU economy.


The past 30 years have not changed geopolitical predicaments that have haunted these countries for centuries. Since the end of the Cold War, nations worldwide have enjoyed the benefits that emerged after the US-Soviet Union feud ended. 


The world has entered a new stage of peace and development. However, this does not change the fact that Central and Eastern Europe region is a hot spot of strategic significance for big powers and continues to witness long-standing rivalries.


There seems to be a golden rule in modern and contemporary European international relations that, for security reasons, most small and medium-sized countries choose to align themselves with single powers or blocs, and they choose various allies at different times and it continues to be the case long after the end of the Cold War. 


Out of political, economic, military, and geopolitical considerations, with various regional and sub-regional organizations in the European region, Europe has become the region with the most concentrated international organization network.


A few Central and Eastern European countries in the former Soviet bloc “returned to Europe” after exiting the Warsaw Pact, requesting to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which offers security guarantee while the EU provides economic and development support. 


Today, 13 Central and Eastern European countries are NATO members, while 11 have joined the EU, while the other countries are expected to join either group. This is the first time in the modern era that Central and Eastern European countries have participated in Europe with full sovereignty and can share part of other countries’ sovereignty. 
 
Central and Eastern European countries, confronted with multiple crises in Europe, are seeking a path of political and economic development in line with their interests within the EU framework, thus affecting EU governance, common policies and European integration.
Given the growing regional power of the Central and Eastern Europe and its increasing impact on related factors, major world political powers all wish to boost their influence in the region out of their own interests. 


These nations, in particular, have started a new competition in the region. At present, there are five major forces active in the Central and Eastern European arena: the EU, Germany, the US, Russia, and China.
As more Central and Eastern European countries join the EU, it is natural that the EU will take advantage of institutional ties to regulate the political, economic and social lives of its members. 


It is for this reason that most countries in Central and Eastern Europe have completed the “grand project” of social transformation in less than 30 years. Germany, the biggest beneficiary of EU’s eastward expansion due to its geographic proximity, developed economy and market size. It has become the largest partner and source of funds for many Central and Eastern European countries in foreign trade. 
By launching the Berlin Process, Germany has promoted EU expansion in the western Balkan region to obtain economic and political benefits. Russia is an old ally of Central and Eastern European countries. Adhering to its traditional security concept, Russia makes use of its advantages – its resources and close connection with Orthodox Church as well as Slavic peoples – to maintain its influence in some Central and Eastern European countries to resist NATO’s containment of Russia. 


In recent years, Russia’s involvement in Central and Eastern European countries, especially with the Balkan nations, has aroused strong vigilance in European countries and the US, while the US has strengthened its influence over the years. 


While sanctioning Russia on the issue of Crimea, the US greatly strengthened its military presence in Central and Eastern Europe and transformed the countries bordering the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea into NATO’s eastern front to confront Russia militarily. 


As a latecomer, China has launched multi-faceted cooperation efforts with Central and Eastern European countries. However, some nations expressed concerns out of self-interest and a precautionary mentality and tried various approaches to interfere or constrain such cooperation. 


While continuing to promote cooperation with Central and Eastern European countries, China adheres to established diplomatic policies, calmly observes changing European geopolitics, reviews and assesses situations, and meanwhile, cooperates rationally with other states while trying its best to safeguard national interests.


The author is research fellow at Institute of East European, Russian, and Central Asian Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. opinion@globaltimes.com.cn



Link of the news: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1148329.shtml

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US anti-China policy against own interests Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 Source:Global Times Published: 2019/5/4 22:08:40


Former US vice-president and Democratic presidential front-runner Joe Biden recently said China is not "bad folks" and China is not "competition for us." His remarks have sent waves across the US. People from President Donald Trump to core members of his team, including Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, have lashed out at Biden.


Biden also holds strong values-based prejudice against China. He insists that the reasons China does not pose a threat to the US are that China has its hands full dealing with its domestic and regional problems, such as tensions in the South China Sea, poverty in its western areas and corruption. 


It is very likely that Biden, as the Democratic 2020 presidential front-runner, will adjust his narrative on China under pressure from Republicans and conservative forces.


The current US administration deems China as its strategic competitor, as with a few US elites. But some people have brought the China threat theory to an extreme. That Biden, a veteran politician, publicly sang a different tune from the Trump administration at least shows he and some US elites believe the China threat theory played up by Washington has gone too far. 


China is the world's second-largest economy and still growing. US right-wing elites are concerned that the strength of China will exceed that of the US. Therefore, Washington feels it a big issue as to what kind of country China is and what China's development means to the US.


The problem is the US administration is dealing with this issue in a simplistic and extreme approach and seems to lack the ability to understand China and craft sensible policies. 


People like Pompeo hyped hostility and pushed forward extreme China policies. If China's policymakers react like their US counterparts, a new Cold War may soon take shape. 


Kiron Skinner, director of policy planning at the US State Department, said recently the rivalry between the two is "a fight with a really different civilization and a different ideology." But should different civilizations fight with each other? Is such a fight destined to be zero-sum? 


Since the US adopts an ideologically aggressive gesture, China has long felt threatened. But with China's growing strength, it has begun to feel that the US does not have such a strategy as to overthrow China, and more people believe the two countries can avoid a strategic collision.


Washington views China as its strategic competitor and launched a trade war against China, which has altered Chinese society's view toward the US. What China and the US mean to each other depends on how they interact with each other. If the US carries out forcible containment against China, then China has no other option but to take all necessary countermeasures.



Link of the news: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1148461.shtml

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LAW OF SUCCESSION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 LAW OF SUCCESSION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 


Important Notice: This English document is coming from "LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA GOVERNING FOREIGN-RELATED MATTERS" (1991.7) which is compiled by the Brueau of Legislative Affairs of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, and is published by the China Legal System Publishing House. In case of discrepancy, the original version in Chinese shall prevail. Whole Document LAW OF SUCCESSION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (Adopted at the Third Session of the Sixth National People's Congress, promulgated by Order No. 24 of the President of the People's Republic of China on April 10, 1985, and effective as of October 1, 1985)

Contents
Chapter I General Provisions
Chapter II Statutory Succession
Chapter III Testamentary Succession and Legacy
Chapter IV Disposition of the Estate
Chapter V Supplementary Provisions
Chapter I General Provisions
Article 1 This Law is enacted pursuant to the provisions of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China with a view to protecting the right of citizens to inherit private property.
Article 2 Succession begins at the death of a citizen. Article 3 Estate denotes the lawful property owned by a citizen personally at the time of his death, which consists of:
(1) his income;
(2) his houses, savings and articles of everyday use;
(3) his forest trees, livestock and poultry;
(4) his cultural objects, books and reference materials;
(5) means of production lawfully owned by him;
(6) his property rights pertaining to copyright and patent rights; and
(7) his other lawful property.
Article 4 Personal benefits accruing from a contract entered into by an individual are heritable in accordance with the provisions of this Law. Contracting by an individual, if permitted by law to be continued by the successor, shall be treated in accordance with the terms of the contract.
Article 5 Succession shall, after its opening, be handled in accordance with the provisions of statutory succession; where a will exists, it shall be handled in accordance with testamentary succession or as legacy; where there is an agreement for legacy in return for support, the former shall be handled in accordance with the terms of the agreement.
Article 6 The right to inheritance or legacy of a competent person shall be exercised on his behalf by his statutory agent. The right to inheritance or legacy of a person with limited capacity shall be exercised on his behalf by his statutory agent or by such person himself after obtaining the consent of his statutory agent.
Article 7 A successor shall be disinherited upon his commission of any one of the following acts:
(1) intentional killing of the decedent;
(2) killing any other successor in fighting over the estate;
(3) a serious act of abandoning or maltreating the decedent; or
(4) a serious act of forging, tampering with or destroying the will.
Article 8 The time limit for institution of legal proceedings pertaining to disputes over the right to inheritance is two years, counting from the day the successor became or should have become aware of the violation of his right to inheritance. No legal proceedings, however, may be instituted after the expiration of a period of 20 years from the day succession began.
Chapter II Statutory Succession
Article 9 Males and females are equal in their right to inheritance.
Article 10 The estate of the decedent shall be inherited in the following order: First in order: spouse, children, parents. Second in order: brothers and sisters, paternal grandparents, maternal grandparents. When succession opens, the successor(s) first in order shall inherit to the exclusion of the successor(s) second in order. The successor(s) second in order shall inherit in default of any successor first in order. The "children" referred to in this Law include legitimate children, illegitimate children and adopted children, as well as step-children who supported or were supported by the decedent. The "parents" referred to in this Law include natural parents and adoptive parents, as well as step-parents who supported or were supported by the decedent. The "brothers and sisters" referred to in this Law include blood brothers and sisters, brothers and sisters of half blood, adopted brothers and sisters, as well as step-brothers and step-sisters who supported or were supported by the decedent.
Article 11 Where a decedent survived his child, the direct lineal descendants of the predeceased child inherit in subrogation. Descendants who inherit in subrogation generally shall take only the share of the estate their father or mother was entitled to.
Article 12 Widowed daughters-in-law or sons-in-law who have made the predominant contributions in maintaining their parents-in-law shall, in relationship to their parents-in-law, be regarded as successors first in order
. Article 13 Successors same in order shall, in general, inherit in equal shares. At the time of distributing the estate, due consideration shall be given to successors who are unable to work and have special financial difficulties. At the time of distributing the estate, successors who have made the predominant contributions in maintaining the decedent or have lived with the decedent may be given a larger share. At the time of distributing the estate, successors who had the ability and were in a position to maintain the decedent but failed to fulfil their duties shall be given no share or a smaller share of the estate. Successors may take unequal shares if an agreement to that effect is reached among them.
Article 14 An appropriate share of the estate may be given to a person, other than a successor, who depended on the support of the decedent and who neither can work nor has a source of income, or to a person, other than a successor, who was largely responsible for supporting the decedent.
Article 15 Questions pertaining to succession should be dealt with through consultation by and among the successors in the spirit of mutual understanding and mutual accommodation, as well as of amity and unity. The time and mode for partitioning the estate and the shares shall be decided by the successors through consultation. If no agreement is reached through consultation, they may apply to a People's Mediation Committee for mediation or institute legal proceedings in a people's court.
Chapter III Testamentary Succession and Legacy
Article 16 A citizen may, by means of a will made in accordance with the provisions of this Law, dispose of the property he owns and may appoint a testamentary executor for the purpose. A citizen may, by making a will, designate one or more of the statutory successors to inherit his personal property. A citizen may, by making a will, donate his personal property to the state or a collective, or bequeath it to persons other than the statutory successors.
Article 17 A notarial will is one made by a testator through a notary agency. A testator-written will is one made in the testator's own handwriting and signed by him, specifying the date of its making. A will written on behalf of the testator shall be witnessed by two or more witnesses, of whom one writes the will, dates it and signs it along with the other witness or witnesses and with the testator. A will made in the form of a sound-recording shall be witnessed by two or more witnesses. A testator may, in an emergency situation, make a nuncupative will, which shall be witnessed by two or more witnesses. When the emergency situation is over and if the testator is able to make a will in writing or in the form of a sound-recording, the nuncupative will he has made shall be invalidated.
Article 18 None of the following persons shall act as a witness of a will: (1) persons with no capacity or with limited capacity; (2) successors and legatees; or (3) persons whose interests are related to those of the successors and legatees. Article 19 Reservation of a necessary portion of an estate shall be made in a will for a successor who neither can work nor has a source of income.
Article 20 A testator may revoke or alter a will he previously made. Where several wills that have been made conflict with one another in content, the last one shall prevail. A notarial will may not be revoked or altered by a testator-written will, a will written on behalf of the testator, a will in the form of a sound- recording or a nuncupative will.
Article 21 Where there are obligations attached to testamentary succession or legacy, the successor or legatee shall perform them. Anyone who fails to perform the obligations without proper reasons may, upon request by a relevant organization or individual, entail nullification of his right to inheritance by a people's court.
Article 22 Wills made by persons with no capacity or with limited capacity shall be void. Wills shall manifest the genuine intention of the testators; those made under duress or as a result of fraud shall be void. Forged wills shall be void. Where a will has been tampered with, the affected parts of it shall be void.
Chapter IV Disposition of the Estate
Article 23 After the opening of succession, a successor who has knowledge of the death should promptly notify the other successors and the testamentary executor. If one of the successors knows about the death or if there is no way to make the notification, the organization to which the decedent belonged before his death or the residents' committee or villagers' committee at his place of residence shall make the notification.
Article 24 Anyone who has in his possession the property of the decedent shall take good care of such property and no one is allowed to misappropriate it or contend for it.
Article 25 A successor who, after the opening of succession, disclaims inheritance should make known his decision before the disposition of the estate. In the absence of such an indication, he is deemed to have accepted the inheritance. A legatee should, within two months from the time he learns of the legacy, make known whether he accepts it or disclaims it. In the absence of such an indication within the specified period, he is deemed to have disclaimed the legacy.
Article 26 If a decedent's estate is partitioned, half of the joint property acquired by the spouses in the course of their matrimonial life shall, unless otherwise agreed upon, be first allotted to the surviving spouse as his or her own property; the remainder shall constitute the decedent's estate. If the decedent's estate is a component part of the common property of his family, that portion of the property belonging to the other members of the family shall first be separated at the time of the partitioning of the decedent's estate. Article 27 Under any of the following circumstances, the part of the estate affected shall be dealt with in accordance with statutory succession:
(1) where inheritance is disclaimed by a testamentary successor or the legacy is disclaimed by a legatee;
(2) where a testamentary successor is disinherited;
(3) where a testamentary successor or legatee predeceases the testator;
(4) where an invalidated portion of the will involves part of the estate; or
(5) where no disposition is made under the will for part of the estate.
Article 28 At the time of the partitioning of the estate, reservation shall be made for the share of an unborn child. The share reserved shall, if the baby is stillborn, be dealt with in accordance with statutory succession.
Article 29 The partitioning of a decedent's estate shall be conducted in a way beneficial to the requirements of production and livelihood; it shall not diminish the usefulness of the estate. If the estate is unsuitable for partitioning, it may be disposed of by such means as price evaluation, appropriate compensation or co-ownership.
Article30 A surviving spouse who remarries is entitled to dispose of the property he or she has inherited, subject to no interference by any other person.
Article 31 A citizen may enter into a legacy-support agreement with a person who, in accordance with the agreement, assumes the duty to support the former in his or her lifetime and attends to his or her interment after death, in return for the right to legacy. A citizen may enter into a legacy-support agreement with an organization under collective ownership which, in accordance with the agreement, assumes the duty to support the former in his or her lifetime and attends to his or her interment after death, in return for the right to legacy.
Article 32 An estate which is left with neither a successor nor a legatee shall belong to the state or, where the decedent was a member of an organization under collective ownership before his or her death, to such an organization.
Article 33 The successor to an estate shall pay all taxes and debts payable by the decedent according to law, up to the actual value of such estate, unless the successor pays voluntarily in excess of the limit. The successor who disclaims inheritance assumes no responsibility for the payment of taxes and debts payable by the decedent according to law.
Article 34 The carrying out of a legacy shall not affect the payment of taxes and debts payable by the legator according to law.
Chapter V Supplementary Provisions
Article 35 The people's congress of a national autonomous area may, in accordance with the principles of this Law and the actual practices of the local nationality or nationalities with regard to property inheritance, enact adaptive or supplementary provisions. Provisions made by autonomous regions shall be reported to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for the record. Provisions made by autonomous prefectures or autonomous counties shall become effective after being reported to and approved by the standing committee of the people's congress of the relevant province or autonomous region and shall be reported to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for the record.
Article 36 For inheritance by a Chinese citizen of an estate outside the People's Republic of China or of an estate of a foreigner within the People's Republic of China, the law of the place of domicile of the decedent shall apply in the case of movable property; in the case of immovable property, the law of the place where the property is located shall apply. For inheritance by a foreigner of an estate within the People's Republic of China or of an estate of a Chinese citizen outside the People's Republic of China, the law of the place of domicile of the decedent shall apply in the case of movable property; in the case of immovable property, the law of the place where the property is located shall apply. Where treaties or agreements exist between the People's Republic of China and foreign countries, matters of inheritance shall be handled in accordance with such treaties or agreements. Article 37 This Law shall go into effect as of October 1, 1985. [1] 
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Special Provisions on Foreign Civil Procedures Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800
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Part IV Special Provisions on Foreign Civil Procedures


Chapter 23 General Principles

    Article 259 The provisions of this Part shall apply to foreign-related civil litigation in the territory of the People's Republic of China. If there is no provision in this series, other relevant provisions of this Law shall apply.

    Article 260 Where an international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China has different provisions from this Law, the provisions of the international treaty shall apply, except for the terms reserved by the People's Republic of China.

    Article 261 Civil proceedings against foreigners, foreign organizations or international organizations enjoying diplomatic privileges and immunities shall be handled in accordance with the relevant laws of the People's Republic of China and the provisions of international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China.

    Article 262 When a people's court hears a foreign-related civil case, it shall use the language and scripts common to the People's Republic of China. If the parties request translation, they may provide it and the expenses shall be borne by the parties.

    Article 263 If a foreigner, stateless person, foreign enterprise or organization sues or responds to a lawsuit in a people's court and needs to entrust a lawyer to represent the lawsuit, it must entrust a lawyer of the People's Republic of China.

    Article 264 Foreigners, stateless persons, foreign enterprises and organizations that do not have a domicile in the territory of the People's Republic of China entrust a lawyer or other person of the People's Republic of China to represent the lawsuit and send or surrender from outside the territory of the People's Republic of China. The power of attorney shall be validated by the notary public of the host country and certified by the Chinese Embassy or Consulate in the country, or by performing the certification procedures stipulated in the relevant treaty between the People's Republic of China and the host country.

Chapter 24—Administration

    Article 265 A lawsuit brought by a defendant who does not have a domicile in the territory of the People's Republic of China due to a contract dispute or other property rights dispute, if the contract is signed or executed in the territory of the People's Republic of China, or the subject matter of the lawsuit is in the Chinese people In the territory of the Republic, or the defendant has property available for seizure in the territory of the People’s Republic of China, or the defendant has a representative office in the territory of the People’s Republic of China, which may be seized by the place where the contract is signed, the place where the contract is performed, the place where the subject matter of the litigation is located. The seat of the property, the place of the infringement or the people's court of the place where the institution resides.

    Article 266 The litigation brought about by the implementation of the Sino-foreign joint venture contract, the contract of a Chinese-foreign contractual joint venture, and the Sino-foreign cooperative exploration and development natural resources contract in the People's Republic of China shall be under the jurisdiction of the People's Court of the People's Republic of China.

Chapter 25 Delivery, Period

    Article 267 The people's court may serve the litigation documents against the parties who do not have a domicile in the territory of the People's Republic of China.

    (1) being served in the manner prescribed in the international treaty concluded or co-participated by the State of the addressee and the People's Republic of China;

    (2) being served through diplomatic channels;

    (3) The person who has the nationality of the People's Republic of China may entrust the embassy or consulate of the People's Republic of China to the place where the person to be served is served;

    (4) serving the litigation agent entrusted by the person to whom the person is entitled to serve on his behalf;

    (5) serving to the representative office established by the person to be served in the territory of the People's Republic of China or the branch or business agent entitled to receive the service;

    (6) If the law of the country where the person is served is allowed to be delivered by post, it may be served by post, three months from the date of mailing, and the return certificate is not returned, but it is sufficient to confirm that it has been delivered according to various circumstances. , the expiration of the period is deemed to be served;

    (7) by fax, e-mail, etc., to be confirmed by the recipient to receive the service;

    (8) If it cannot be served in the above manner, the announcement shall be served, and it shall be deemed to have been served for three months from the date of the announcement.

    Article 268 If the defendant does not have a domicile in the territory of the People's Republic of China, the people's court shall serve a copy of the complaint to the defendant and notify the defendant to file a reply within 30 days after receiving the copy of the complaint. If the defendant applies for an extension, it is up to the people's court to decide whether it is permitted.

    Article 269 If a party who does not have a domicile in the territory of the People's Republic of China refuses to accept the judgment or ruling of the people's court of the first instance, it shall have the right to appeal within 30 days from the date of service of the judgment or ruling. After receiving the copy of the appeal, the appellee shall file a reply within 30 days. If the parties are unable to file an appeal or file a defense during the statutory period, and whether the application for extension is permitted, the decision shall be made by the people's court.

    Article 270 The period during which a people's court hears a foreign-related civil case shall not be subject to the restrictions stipulated in Articles 149 and 176 of this Law.

Chapter 26—Arbitration

    Article 271 Where a dispute arises in a foreign-related economic, trade, transportation or maritime dispute, the parties shall have an arbitration clause in the contract or a written arbitration agreement after the event, and shall be submitted to the foreign-related arbitration institution of the People's Republic of China or other arbitration institution for arbitration. Prosecuted to the people's court

    If the parties do not have an arbitration clause in the contract or fail to reach a written arbitration agreement afterwards, they may file a suit in a people's court.

    Article 272 Where a party applies for preservation, the foreign-related arbitration institution of the People's Republic of China shall submit the application of the party to the intermediate people's court at the place where the respondent resides or where the property is located.

    Article 273 If the arbitral award is made by a foreign-related arbitration institution of the People's Republic of China, the parties may not sue the people's court. If one party fails to perform the arbitral award, the other party may apply to the intermediate people's court where the respondent is domiciled or where the property is located.

    Article 274 If the respondent lodges a ruling on a foreign-related arbitration institution of the People's Republic of China and proves that the arbitral award is in any of the following circumstances, it shall be examined and verified by a collegial panel of the people's court, and the ruling shall not be enforced:

    (1) The parties did not have an arbitration clause in the contract or did not reach a written arbitration agreement afterwards;

    (2) The respondent did not receive the notice of appointing an arbitrator or proceeding with the arbitral proceedings, or failed to state the opinion because of other reasons that were not the responsibility of the respondent;

    (3) The composition of the arbitral tribunal or the procedure for arbitration is inconsistent with the arbitration rules;

    (4) The matters of the award are not within the scope of the arbitration agreement or the arbitration institution has no right to arbitrate.

    If the people's court determines that the enforcement of the ruling violates the public interest, the ruling will not be enforced.

    Article 275 If the arbitral award is decided not to be enforced by the people's court, the parties may reapply for arbitration according to the written arbitration agreement reached between the parties, or may sue the people's court.

Chapter 27 Mutual Legal Assistance

    Article 276 According to the international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China, or in accordance with the principle of reciprocity, the people's courts and foreign courts may request each other to serve documents, investigate and collect evidence, and conduct other litigation.

    Where a foreign court’s request for assistance is detrimental to the sovereignty, security or social public interest of the People’s Republic of China, the people’s court shall not enforce it.

    Article 277 The request and provision of judicial assistance shall be conducted in accordance with the stipulations of international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China; if there is no treaty relationship, it shall be conducted through diplomatic channels.

    Foreign embassies and consulates in the People's Republic of China may serve documents and investigate and collect evidence from citizens of the country, but may not violate the laws of the People's Republic of China and may not take enforcement measures.

    Except as provided in the preceding paragraph, no foreign institution or individual may serve documents, investigate and collect evidence in the territory of the People's Republic of China without the permission of the competent authority of the People's Republic of China.

    Article 278 A request by a foreign court for a judicial assistance from a people's court and its accompanying documents shall be accompanied by a Chinese translation or other texts stipulated by international treaties.

    The request of the people's court for judicial assistance from a foreign court and the accompanying documents shall be accompanied by a translation of the country's text or other texts stipulated by international treaties.

    Article 279 The people's court provides judicial assistance in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the laws of the People's Republic of China. Where a foreign court requests a special method, it may also be conducted in a special manner as requested, but the special method requested may not violate the laws of the People's Republic of China.

    Article 280 If a person's court makes a judgment or ruling on the legal effect, if the executor or his property is not in the territory of the People's Republic of China and the party requests to execute it, the party may directly apply to the foreign court with jurisdiction for recognition. And enforcement may also be requested by the people's courts to be recognized and enforced by foreign courts in accordance with the provisions of international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China or in accordance with the principle of reciprocity.

    If an arbitral award made by a foreign-related arbitration institution of the People's Republic of China has a legal effect, if the party concerned or its property is not in the territory of the People's Republic of China, the party concerned shall apply directly to the foreign court with jurisdiction for recognition and enforcement.

    Article 281 Where a judgment or ruling by a foreign court that has legal effect requires the recognition and enforcement by the People's Court of the People's Republic of China, the party may directly apply to the Intermediate People's Court of the People's Republic of China for approval and enforcement. It may also be requested by the foreign courts to be recognized and enforced by the people's courts in accordance with the provisions of international treaties concluded or acceded to by the country and the People's Republic of China, or in accordance with the principle of reciprocity.

    Article 282 If a people's court makes a judgment or ruling on the legal effect of a foreign court that has applied for or requested to be recognized and executed, it shall not consider it according to the international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China, or after reviewing according to the principle of reciprocity. Anyone who violates the basic principles of the laws of the People's Republic of China or the sovereignty, safety, or public interest of the state shall, if it decides to recognize its validity and needs to be executed, issue an enforcement order in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Law. Any violation of the basic principles of the laws of the People's Republic of China or national sovereignty, security, or social public interests shall not be recognized and enforced.

    Article 283 If the ruling of a foreign arbitral institution requires the recognition and enforcement by the people's court of the People's Republic of China, the party concerned shall apply directly to the intermediate people's court where the executor's domicile or the place where the property is located, and the people's court shall follow the Chinese people. International treaties concluded or acceded to by the Republic, or in accordance with the principle of reciprocity.

    Article 284 This Law shall be implemented as of the date of promulgation, and the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China (Trial) shall be repealed at the same time.
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Company Law of the People's Republic of China Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800
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Company Law of the People's Republic of China 


中华人民共和国公司法

(1993年12月29日第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第五次会议通过根据1999年12月25日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十三次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国公司法〉的决定》第一次修正 根据2004年8月28日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十一次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国公司法〉的决定》第二次修正 2005年10月27日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十八次会议修订 根据2013年12月28日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第六次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国海洋环境保护法〉等七部法律的决定》第三次修正 根据2018年10月26日第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第六次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国公司法〉的决定》第四次修正)

目  录

  第一章 总  则

  第二章 有限责任公司的设立和组织机构

    第一节 设  立

    第二节 组织机构

    第三节 一人有限责任公司的特别规定

    第四节 国有独资公司的特别规定

  第三章 有限责任公司的股权转让

  第四章 股份有限公司的设立和组织机构

    第一节 设  立

    第二节 股东大会

    第三节 董事会、经理

    第四节 监 事 会

    第五节 上市公司组织机构的特别规定

  第五章 股份有限公司的股份发行和转让

    第一节 股份发行

    第二节 股份转让

  第六章 公司董事、监事、高级管理人员的资格和义务

  第七章 公司债券

  第八章 公司财务、会计

  第九章 公司合并、分立、增资、减资

  第十章 公司解散和清算

  第十一章 外国公司的分支机构

  第十二章 法律责任

  第十三章 附  则

第一章 总  则

  第一条 为了规范公司的组织和行为,保护公司、股东和债权人的合法权益,维护社会经济秩序,促进社会主义市场经济的发展,制定本法。

  第二条 本法所称公司是指依照本法在中国境内设立的有限责任公司和股份有限公司。

  第三条 公司是企业法人,有独立的法人财产,享有法人财产权。公司以其全部财产对公司的债务承担责任。

  有限责任公司的股东以其认缴的出资额为限对公司承担责任;股份有限公司的股东以其认购的股份为限对公司承担责任。

  第四条 公司股东依法享有资产收益、参与重大决策和选择管理者等权利。

  第五条 公司从事经营活动,必须遵守法律、行政法规,遵守社会公德、商业道德,诚实守信,接受政府和社会公众的监督,承担社会责任。

  公司的合法权益受法律保护,不受侵犯。

  第六条 设立公司,应当依法向公司登记机关申请设立登记。符合本法规定的设立条件的,由公司登记机关分别登记为有限责任公司或者股份有限公司;不符合本法规定的设立条件的,不得登记为有限责任公司或者股份有限公司。

  法律、行政法规规定设立公司必须报经批准的,应当在公司登记前依法办理批准手续。

  公众可以向公司登记机关申请查询公司登记事项,公司登记机关应当提供查询服务。

  第七条 依法设立的公司,由公司登记机关发给公司营业执照。公司营业执照签发日期为公司成立日期。

  公司营业执照应当载明公司的名称、住所、注册资本、经营范围、法定代表人姓名等事项。

  公司营业执照记载的事项发生变更的,公司应当依法办理变更登记,由公司登记机关换发营业执照。

  第八条 依照本法设立的有限责任公司,必须在公司名称中标明有限责任公司或者有限公司字样。

  依照本法设立的股份有限公司,必须在公司名称中标明股份有限公司或者股份公司字样。

  第九条 有限责任公司变更为股份有限公司,应当符合本法规定的股份有限公司的条件。股份有限公司变更为有限责任公司,应当符合本法规定的有限责任公司的条件。

  有限责任公司变更为股份有限公司的,或者股份有限公司变更为有限责任公司的,公司变更前的债权、债务由变更后的公司承继。

  第十条 公司以其主要办事机构所在地为住所。

  第十一条 设立公司必须依法制定公司章程。公司章程对公司、股东、董事、监事、高级管理人员具有约束力。

  第十二条 公司的经营范围由公司章程规定,并依法登记。公司可以修改公司章程,改变经营范围,但是应当办理变更登记。

  公司的经营范围中属于法律、行政法规规定须经批准的项目,应当依法经过批准。

  第十三条 公司法定代表人依照公司章程的规定,由董事长、执行董事或者经理担任,并依法登记。公司法定代表人变更,应当办理变更登记。

  第十四条 公司可以设立分公司。设立分公司,应当向公司登记机关申请登记,领取营业执照。分公司不具有法人资格,其民事责任由公司承担。

  公司可以设立子公司,子公司具有法人资格,依法独立承担民事责任。

  第十五条 公司可以向其他企业投资;但是,除法律另有规定外,不得成为对所投资企业的债务承担连带责任的出资人。

  第十六条 公司向其他企业投资或者为他人提供担保,依照公司章程的规定,由董事会或者股东会、股东大会决议;公司章程对投资或者担保的总额及单项投资或者担保的数额有限额规定的,不得超过规定的限额。

  公司为公司股东或者实际控制人提供担保的,必须经股东会或者股东大会决议。

  前款规定的股东或者受前款规定的实际控制人支配的股东,不得参加前款规定事项的表决。该项表决由出席会议的其他股东所持表决权的过半数通过。

  第十七条 公司必须保护职工的合法权益,依法与职工签订劳动合同,参加社会保险,加强劳动保护,实现安全生产。

  公司应当采用多种形式,加强公司职工的职业教育和岗位培训,提高职工素质。

  第十八条 公司职工依照《中华人民共和国工会法》组织工会,开展工会活动,维护职工合法权益。公司应当为本公司工会提供必要的活动条件。公司工会代表职工就职工的劳动报酬、工作时间、福利、保险和劳动安全卫生等事项依法与公司签订集体合同。

  公司依照宪法和有关法律的规定,通过职工代表大会或者其他形式,实行民主管理。

  公司研究决定改制以及经营方面的重大问题、制定重要的规章制度时,应当听取公司工会的意见,并通过职工代表大会或者其他形式听取职工的意见和建议。

  第十九条 在公司中,根据中国共产党章程的规定,设立中国共产党的组织,开展党的活动。公司应当为党组织的活动提供必要条件。

  第二十条 公司股东应当遵守法律、行政法规和公司章程,依法行使股东权利,不得滥用股东权利损害公司或者其他股东的利益;不得滥用公司法人独立地位和股东有限责任损害公司债权人的利益。

  公司股东滥用股东权利给公司或者其他股东造成损失的,应当依法承担赔偿责任。

  公司股东滥用公司法人独立地位和股东有限责任,逃避债务,严重损害公司债权人利益的,应当对公司债务承担连带责任。

  第二十一条 公司的控股股东、实际控制人、董事、监事、高级管理人员不得利用其关联关系损害公司利益。

违反前款规定,给公司造成损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

  第二十二条 公司股东会或者股东大会、董事会的决议内容违反法律、行政法规的无效。

  股东会或者股东大会、董事会的会议召集程序、表决方式违反法律、行政法规或者公司章程,或者决议内容违反公司章程的,股东可以自决议作出之日起六十日内,请求人民法院撤销。

  股东依照前款规定提起诉讼的,人民法院可以应公司的请求,要求股东提供相应担保。

  公司根据股东会或者股东大会、董事会决议已办理变更登记的,人民法院宣告该决议无效或者撤销该决议后,公司应当向公司登记机关申请撤销变更登记。

第二章 有限责任公司的设立和组织机构

第一节 设  立

  第二十三条 设立有限责任公司,应当具备下列条件:

  (一)股东符合法定人数;

  (二)有符合公司章程规定的全体股东认缴的出资额;

  (三)股东共同制定公司章程;

  (四)有公司名称,建立符合有限责任公司要求的组织机构;

  (五)有公司住所。

  第二十四条 有限责任公司由五十个以下股东出资设立。

  第二十五条 有限责任公司章程应当载明下列事项:

    (一)公司名称和住所;

    (二)公司经营范围;

    (三)公司注册资本;

    (四)股东的姓名或者名称;

    (五)股东的出资方式、出资额和出资时间;

    (六)公司的机构及其产生办法、职权、议事规则;

    (七)公司法定代表人;

    (八)股东会会议认为需要规定的其他事项。

    股东应当在公司章程上签名、盖章。

    第二十六条 有限责任公司的注册资本为在公司登记机关登记的全体股东认缴的出资额。

    法律、行政法规以及国务院决定对有限责任公司注册资本实缴、注册资本最低限额另有规定的,从其规定。

    第二十七条 股东可以用货币出资,也可以用实物、知识产权、土地使用权等可以用货币估价并可以依法转让的非货币财产作价出资;但是,法律、行政法规规定不得作为出资的财产除外。

    对作为出资的非货币财产应当评估作价,核实财产,不得高估或者低估作价。法律、行政法规对评估作价有规定的,从其规定。

    第二十八条 股东应当按期足额缴纳公司章程中规定的各自所认缴的出资额。股东以货币出资的,应当将货币出资足额存入有限责任公司在银行开设的账户;以非货币财产出资的,应当依法办理其财产权的转移手续。

    股东不按照前款规定缴纳出资的,除应当向公司足额缴纳外,还应当向已按期足额缴纳出资的股东承担违约责任。

    第二十九条 股东认足公司章程规定的出资后,由全体股东指定的代表或者共同委托的代理人向公司登记机关报送公司登记申请书、公司章程等文件,申请设立登记。

    第三十条 有限责任公司成立后,发现作为设立公司出资的非货币财产的实际价额显著低于公司章程所定价额的,应当由交付该出资的股东补足其差额;公司设立时的其他股东承担连带责任。

    第三十一条 有限责任公司成立后,应当向股东签发出资证明书。

    出资证明书应当载明下列事项:

    (一)公司名称;

    (二)公司成立日期;

    (三)公司注册资本;

    (四)股东的姓名或者名称、缴纳的出资额和出资日期;

    (五)出资证明书的编号和核发日期。

    出资证明书由公司盖章。

    第三十二条 有限责任公司应当置备股东名册,记载下列事项:

    (一)股东的姓名或者名称及住所;

    (二)股东的出资额;

    (三)出资证明书编号。

    记载于股东名册的股东,可以依股东名册主张行使股东权利。

    公司应当将股东的姓名或者名称向公司登记机关登记;登记事项发生变更的,应当办理变更登记。未经登记或者变更登记的,不得对抗第三人。

    第三十三条 股东有权查阅、复制公司章程、股东会会议记录、董事会会议决议、监事会会议决议和财务会计报告。

    股东可以要求查阅公司会计账簿。股东要求查阅公司会计账簿的,应当向公司提出书面请求,说明目的。公司有合理根据认为股东查阅会计账簿有不正当目的,可能损害公司合法利益的,可以拒绝提供查阅,并应当自股东提出书面请求之日起十五日内书面答复股东并说明理由。公司拒绝提供查阅的,股东可以请求人民法院要求公司提供查阅。

    第三十四条 股东按照实缴的出资比例分取红利;公司新增资本时,股东有权优先按照实缴的出资比例认缴出资。但是,全体股东约定不按照出资比例分取红利或者不按照出资比例优先认缴出资的除外。

    第三十五条 公司成立后,股东不得抽逃出资。

第二节 组 织 机 构

    第三十六条 有限责任公司股东会由全体股东组成。股东会是公司的权力机构,依照本法行使职权。

    第三十七条 股东会行使下列职权:

    (一)决定公司的经营方针和投资计划;

    (二)选举和更换非由职工代表担任的董事、监事,决定有关董事、监事的报酬事项;

    (三)审议批准董事会的报告;

    (四)审议批准监事会或者监事的报告;

    (五)审议批准公司的年度财务预算方案、决算方案;

    (六)审议批准公司的利润分配方案和弥补亏损方案;

    (七)对公司增加或者减少注册资本作出决议;

    (八)对发行公司债券作出决议;

    (九)对公司合并、分立、解散、清算或者变更公司形式作出决议;

    (十)修改公司章程;

    (十一)公司章程规定的其他职权。

    对前款所列事项股东以书面形式一致表示同意的,可以不召开股东会会议,直接作出决定,并由全体股东在决定文件上签名、盖章。

    第三十八条 首次股东会会议由出资最多的股东召集和主持,依照本法规定行使职权。

    第三十九条 股东会会议分为定期会议和临时会议。

    定期会议应当依照公司章程的规定按时召开。代表十分之一以上表决权的股东,三分之一以上的董事,监事会或者不设监事会的公司的监事提议召开临时会议的,应当召开临时会议。

    第四十条 有限责任公司设立董事会的,股东会会议由董事会召集,董事长主持;董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由副董事长主持;副董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由半数以上董事共同推举一名董事主持。

    有限责任公司不设董事会的,股东会会议由执行董事召集和主持。

    董事会或者执行董事不能履行或者不履行召集股东会会议职责的,由监事会或者不设监事会的公司的监事召集和主持;监事会或者监事不召集和主持的,代表十分之一以上表决权的股东可以自行召集和主持。

    第四十一条 召开股东会会议,应当于会议召开十五日前通知全体股东;但是,公司章程另有规定或者全体股东另有约定的除外。

    股东会应当对所议事项的决定作成会议记录,出席会议的股东应当在会议记录上签名。

    第四十二条 股东会会议由股东按照出资比例行使表决权;但是,公司章程另有规定的除外。

    第四十三条 股东会的议事方式和表决程序,除本法有规定的外,由公司章程规定。

    股东会会议作出修改公司章程、增加或者减少注册资本的决议,以及公司合并、分立、解散或者变更公司形式的决议,必须经代表三分之二以上表决权的股东通过。

    第四十四条 有限责任公司设董事会,其成员为三人至十三人;但是,本法第五十条另有规定的除外。

    两个以上的国有企业或者两个以上的其他国有投资主体投资设立的有限责任公司,其董事会成员中应当有公司职工代表;其他有限责任公司董事会成员中可以有公司职工代表。董事会中的职工代表由公司职工通过职工代表大会、职工大会或者其他形式民主选举产生。

    董事会设董事长一人,可以设副董事长。董事长、副董事长的产生办法由公司章程规定。

    第四十五条 董事任期由公司章程规定,但每届任期不得超过三年。董事任期届满,连选可以连任。

    董事任期届满未及时改选,或者董事在任期内辞职导致董事会成员低于法定人数的,在改选出的董事就任前,原董事仍应当依照法律、行政法规和公司章程的规定,履行董事职务。

    第四十六条 董事会对股东会负责,行使下列职权:

    (一)召集股东会会议,并向股东会报告工作;

    (二)执行股东会的决议;

    (三)决定公司的经营计划和投资方案;

    (四)制订公司的年度财务预算方案、决算方案;

    (五)制订公司的利润分配方案和弥补亏损方案;

    (六)制订公司增加或者减少注册资本以及发行公司债券的方案;

    (七)制订公司合并、分立、解散或者变更公司形式的方案;

    (八)决定公司内部管理机构的设置;

    (九)决定聘任或者解聘公司经理及其报酬事项,并根据经理的提名决定聘任或者解聘公司副经理、财务负责人及其报酬事项;

    (十)制定公司的基本管理制度;

    (十一)公司章程规定的其他职权。

    第四十七条 董事会会议由董事长召集和主持;董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由副董事长召集和主持;副董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由半数以上董事共同推举一名董事召集和主持。

    第四十八条 董事会的议事方式和表决程序,除本法有规定的外,由公司章程规定。

    董事会应当对所议事项的决定作成会议记录,出席会议的董事应当在会议记录上签名。

    董事会决议的表决,实行一人一票。

    第四十九条 有限责任公司可以设经理,由董事会决定聘任或者解聘。经理对董事会负责,行使下列职权:

    (一)主持公司的生产经营管理工作,组织实施董事会决议;

    (二)组织实施公司年度经营计划和投资方案;

    (三)拟订公司内部管理机构设置方案;

    (四)拟订公司的基本管理制度;

    (五)制定公司的具体规章;

    (六)提请聘任或者解聘公司副经理、财务负责人;

    (七)决定聘任或者解聘除应由董事会决定聘任或者解聘以外的负责管理人员;

    (八)董事会授予的其他职权。

    公司章程对经理职权另有规定的,从其规定。

    经理列席董事会会议。

    第五十条 股东人数较少或者规模较小的有限责任公司,可以设一名执行董事,不设董事会。执行董事可以兼任公司经理。

    执行董事的职权由公司章程规定。

    第五十一条 有限责任公司设监事会,其成员不得少于三人。股东人数较少或者规模较小的有限责任公司,可以设一至二名监事,不设监事会。

    监事会应当包括股东代表和适当比例的公司职工代表,其中职工代表的比例不得低于三分之一,具体比例由公司章程规定。监事会中的职工代表由公司职工通过职工代表大会、职工大会或者其他形式民主选举产生。

    监事会设主席一人,由全体监事过半数选举产生。监事会主席召集和主持监事会会议;监事会主席不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由半数以上监事共同推举一名监事召集和主持监事会会议。

    董事、高级管理人员不得兼任监事。

    第五十二条 监事的任期每届为三年。监事任期届满,连选可以连任。

    监事任期届满未及时改选,或者监事在任期内辞职导致监事会成员低于法定人数的,在改选出的监事就任前,原监事仍应当依照法律、行政法规和公司章程的规定,履行监事职务。

    第五十三条 监事会、不设监事会的公司的监事行使下列职权:

    (一)检查公司财务;

    (二)对董事、高级管理人员执行公司职务的行为进行监督,对违反法律、行政法规、公司章程或者股东会决议的董事、高级管理人员提出罢免的建议;

    (三)当董事、高级管理人员的行为损害公司的利益时,要求董事、高级管理人员予以纠正;

    (四)提议召开临时股东会会议,在董事会不履行本法规定的召集和主持股东会会议职责时召集和主持股东会会议;

    (五)向股东会会议提出提案;

    (六)依照本法第一百五十一条的规定,对董事、高级管理人员提起诉讼;

    (七)公司章程规定的其他职权。

    第五十四条 监事可以列席董事会会议,并对董事会决议事项提出质询或者建议。

    监事会、不设监事会的公司的监事发现公司经营情况异常,可以进行调查;必要时,可以聘请会计师事务所等协助其工作,费用由公司承担。

    第五十五条 监事会每年度至少召开一次会议,监事可以提议召开临时监事会会议。

    监事会的议事方式和表决程序,除本法有规定的外,由公司章程规定。

    监事会决议应当经半数以上监事通过。

    监事会应当对所议事项的决定作成会议记录,出席会议的监事应当在会议记录上签名。

    第五十六条 监事会、不设监事会的公司的监事行使职权所必需的费用,由公司承担。

第三节 一人有限责任公司的特别规定

    第五十七条 一人有限责任公司的设立和组织机构,适用本节规定;本节没有规定的,适用本章第一节、第二节的规定。

    本法所称一人有限责任公司,是指只有一个自然人股东或者一个法人股东的有限责任公司。

    第五十八条 一个自然人只能投资设立一个一人有限责任公司。该一人有限责任公司不能投资设立新的一人有限责任公司。

    第五十九条 一人有限责任公司应当在公司登记中注明自然人独资或者法人独资,并在公司营业执照中载明。

    第六十条 一人有限责任公司章程由股东制定。

    第六十一条 一人有限责任公司不设股东会。股东作出本法第三十七条第一款所列决定时,应当采用书面形式,并由股东签名后置备于公司。

    第六十二条 一人有限责任公司应当在每一会计年度终了时编制财务会计报告,并经会计师事务所审计。

    第六十三条 一人有限责任公司的股东不能证明公司财产独立于股东自己的财产的,应当对公司债务承担连带责任。

第四节 国有独资公司的特别规定

    第六十四条 国有独资公司的设立和组织机构,适用本节规定;本节没有规定的,适用本章第一节、第二节的规定。

    本法所称国有独资公司,是指国家单独出资、由国务院或者地方人民政府授权本级人民政府国有资产监督管理机构履行出资人职责的有限责任公司。

    第六十五条 国有独资公司章程由国有资产监督管理机构制定,或者由董事会制订报国有资产监督管理机构批准。

    第六十六条 国有独资公司不设股东会,由国有资产监督管理机构行使股东会职权。国有资产监督管理机构可以授权公司董事会行使股东会的部分职权,决定公司的重大事项,但公司的合并、分立、解散、增加或者减少注册资本和发行公司债券,必须由国有资产监督管理机构决定;其中,重要的国有独资公司合并、分立、解散、申请破产的,应当由国有资产监督管理机构审核后,报本级人民政府批准。

    前款所称重要的国有独资公司,按照国务院的规定确定。

    第六十七条 国有独资公司设董事会,依照本法第四十六条、第六十六条的规定行使职权。董事每届任期不得超过三年。董事会成员中应当有公司职工代表。

    董事会成员由国有资产监督管理机构委派;但是,董事会成员中的职工代表由公司职工代表大会选举产生。

    董事会设董事长一人,可以设副董事长。董事长、副董事长由国有资产监督管理机构从董事会成员中指定。

    第六十八条 国有独资公司设经理,由董事会聘任或者解聘。经理依照本法第四十九条规定行使职权。

    经国有资产监督管理机构同意,董事会成员可以兼任经理。

    第六十九条 国有独资公司的董事长、副董事长、董事、高级管理人员,未经国有资产监督管理机构同意,不得在其他有限责任公司、股份有限公司或者其他经济组织兼职。

    第七十条 国有独资公司监事会成员不得少于五人,其中职工代表的比例不得低于三分之一,具体比例由公司章程规定。

    监事会成员由国有资产监督管理机构委派;但是,监事会成员中的职工代表由公司职工代表大会选举产生。监事会主席由国有资产监督管理机构从监事会成员中指定。

    监事会行使本法第五十三条第(一)项至第(三)项规定的职权和国务院规定的其他职权。

第三章 有限责任公司的股权转让

    第七十一条 有限责任公司的股东之间可以相互转让其全部或者部分股权。

    股东向股东以外的人转让股权,应当经其他股东过半数同意。股东应就其股权转让事项书面通知其他股东征求同意,其他股东自接到书面通知之日起满三十日未答复的,视为同意转让。其他股东半数以上不同意转让的,不同意的股东应当购买该转让的股权;不购买的,视为同意转让。

    经股东同意转让的股权,在同等条件下,其他股东有优先购买权。两个以上股东主张行使优先购买权的,协商确定各自的购买比例;协商不成的,按照转让时各自的出资比例行使优先购买权。

    公司章程对股权转让另有规定的,从其规定。

    第七十二条 人民法院依照法律规定的强制执行程序转让股东的股权时,应当通知公司及全体股东,其他股东在同等条件下有优先购买权。其他股东自人民法院通知之日起满二十日不行使优先购买权的,视为放弃优先购买权。

    第七十三条 依照本法第七十一条、第七十二条转让股权后,公司应当注销原股东的出资证明书,向新股东签发出资证明书,并相应修改公司章程和股东名册中有关股东及其出资额的记载。对公司章程的该项修改不需再由股东会表决。

    第七十四条 有下列情形之一的,对股东会该项决议投反对票的股东可以请求公司按照合理的价格收购其股权:

    (一)公司连续五年不向股东分配利润,而公司该五年连续盈利,并且符合本法规定的分配利润条件的;

    (二)公司合并、分立、转让主要财产的;

    (三)公司章程规定的营业期限届满或者章程规定的其他解散事由出现,股东会会议通过决议修改章程使公司存续的。

    自股东会会议决议通过之日起六十日内,股东与公司不能达成股权收购协议的,股东可以自股东会会议决议通过之日起九十日内向人民法院提起诉讼。

    第七十五条 自然人股东死亡后,其合法继承人可以继承股东资格;但是,公司章程另有规定的除外。

第四章 股份有限公司的设立和组织机构

第一节 设  立

  第七十六条 设立股份有限公司,应当具备下列条件:

    (一)发起人符合法定人数;

    (二)有符合公司章程规定的全体发起人认购的股本总额或者募集的实收股本总额;

    (三)股份发行、筹办事项符合法律规定;

    (四)发起人制订公司章程,采用募集方式设立的经创立大会通过;

    (五)有公司名称,建立符合股份有限公司要求的组织机构;

    (六)有公司住所。

    第七十七条 股份有限公司的设立,可以采取发起设立或者募集设立的方式。

    发起设立,是指由发起人认购公司应发行的全部股份而设立公司。

    募集设立,是指由发起人认购公司应发行股份的一部分,其余股份向社会公开募集或者向特定对象募集而设立公司。

    第七十八条 设立股份有限公司,应当有二人以上二百人以下为发起人,其中须有半数以上的发起人在中国境内有住所。

    第七十九条 股份有限公司发起人承担公司筹办事务。

    发起人应当签订发起人协议,明确各自在公司设立过程中的权利和义务。

    第八十条 股份有限公司采取发起设立方式设立的,注册资本为在公司登记机关登记的全体发起人认购的股本总额。在发起人认购的股份缴足前,不得向他人募集股份。

    股份有限公司采取募集方式设立的,注册资本为在公司登记机关登记的实收股本总额。

    法律、行政法规以及国务院决定对股份有限公司注册资本实缴、注册资本最低限额另有规定的,从其规定。

    第八十一条 股份有限公司章程应当载明下列事项:

    (一)公司名称和住所;

    (二)公司经营范围;

    (三)公司设立方式;

    (四)公司股份总数、每股金额和注册资本;

    (五)发起人的姓名或者名称、认购的股份数、出资方式和出资时间;

    (六)董事会的组成、职权和议事规则;

    (七)公司法定代表人;

    (八)监事会的组成、职权和议事规则;

    (九)公司利润分配办法;

    (十)公司的解散事由与清算办法;

    (十一)公司的通知和公告办法;

    (十二)股东大会会议认为需要规定的其他事项。

    第八十二条 发起人的出资方式,适用本法第二十七条的规定。

    第八十三条 以发起设立方式设立股份有限公司的,发起人应当书面认足公司章程规定其认购的股份,并按照公司章程规定缴纳出资。以非货币财产出资的,应当依法办理其财产权的转移手续。

    发起人不依照前款规定缴纳出资的,应当按照发起人协议承担违约责任。

    发起人认足公司章程规定的出资后,应当选举董事会和监事会,由董事会向公司登记机关报送公司章程以及法律、行政法规规定的其他文件,申请设立登记。

    第八十四条 以募集设立方式设立股份有限公司的,发起人认购的股份不得少于公司股份总数的百分之三十五;但是,法律、行政法规另有规定的,从其规定。

    第八十五条 发起人向社会公开募集股份,必须公告招股说明书,并制作认股书。认股书应当载明本法第八十六条所列事项,由认股人填写认购股数、金额、住所,并签名、盖章。认股人按照所认购股数缴纳股款。

    第八十六条 招股说明书应当附有发起人制订的公司章程,并载明下列事项:

    (一)发起人认购的股份数;

    (二)每股的票面金额和发行价格;

    (三)无记名股票的发行总数;

    (四)募集资金的用途;

    (五)认股人的权利、义务;

    (六)本次募股的起止期限及逾期未募足时认股人可以撤回所认股份的说明。

    第八十七条 发起人向社会公开募集股份,应当由依法设立的证券公司承销,签订承销协议。

    第八十八条 发起人向社会公开募集股份,应当同银行签订代收股款协议。

    代收股款的银行应当按照协议代收和保存股款,向缴纳股款的认股人出具收款单据,并负有向有关部门出具收款证明的义务。

    第八十九条 发行股份的股款缴足后,必须经依法设立的验资机构验资并出具证明。发起人应当自股款缴足之日起三十日内主持召开公司创立大会。创立大会由发起人、认股人组成。

    发行的股份超过招股说明书规定的截止期限尚未募足的,或者发行股份的股款缴足后,发起人在三十日内未召开创立大会的,认股人可以按照所缴股款并加算银行同期存款利息,要求发起人返还。

    第九十条 发起人应当在创立大会召开十五日前将会议日期通知各认股人或者予以公告。创立大会应有代表股份总数过半数的发起人、认股人出席,方可举行。

    创立大会行使下列职权:

    (一)审议发起人关于公司筹办情况的报告;

    (二)通过公司章程;

    (三)选举董事会成员;

    (四)选举监事会成员;

    (五)对公司的设立费用进行审核;

    (六)对发起人用于抵作股款的财产的作价进行审核;

    (七)发生不可抗力或者经营条件发生重大变化直接影响公司设立的,可以作出不设立公司的决议。

    创立大会对前款所列事项作出决议,必须经出席会议的认股人所持表决权过半数通过。

    第九十一条 发起人、认股人缴纳股款或者交付抵作股款的出资后,除未按期募足股份、发起人未按期召开创立大会或者创立大会决议不设立公司的情形外,不得抽回其股本。

    第九十二条 董事会应于创立大会结束后三十日内,向公司登记机关报送下列文件,申请设立登记:

    (一)公司登记申请书;

    (二)创立大会的会议记录;

    (三)公司章程;

    (四)验资证明;

    (五)法定代表人、董事、监事的任职文件及其身份证明;

    (六)发起人的法人资格证明或者自然人身份证明;

    (七)公司住所证明。

    以募集方式设立股份有限公司公开发行股票的,还应当向公司登记机关报送国务院证券监督管理机构的核准文件。

    第九十三条 股份有限公司成立后,发起人未按照公司章程的规定缴足出资的,应当补缴;其他发起人承担连带责任。

    股份有限公司成立后,发现作为设立公司出资的非货币财产的实际价额显著低于公司章程所定价额的,应当由交付该出资的发起人补足其差额;其他发起人承担连带责任。

    第九十四条 股份有限公司的发起人应当承担下列责任:

    (一)公司不能成立时,对设立行为所产生的债务和费用负连带责任;

    (二)公司不能成立时,对认股人已缴纳的股款,负返还股款并加算银行同期存款利息的连带责任;

    (三)在公司设立过程中,由于发起人的过失致使公司利益受到损害的,应当对公司承担赔偿责任。

    第九十五条 有限责任公司变更为股份有限公司时,折合的实收股本总额不得高于公司净资产额。有限责任公司变更为股份有限公司,为增加资本公开发行股份时,应当依法办理。

    第九十六条 股份有限公司应当将公司章程、股东名册、公司债券存根、股东大会会议记录、董事会会议记录、监事会会议记录、财务会计报告置备于本公司。

    第九十七条 股东有权查阅公司章程、股东名册、公司债券存根、股东大会会议记录、董事会会议决议、监事会会议决议、财务会计报告,对公司的经营提出建议或者质询。

第二节 股 东 大 会

    第九十八条 股份有限公司股东大会由全体股东组成。股东大会是公司的权力机构,依照本法行使职权。

    第九十九条 本法第三十七条第一款关于有限责任公司股东会职权的规定,适用于股份有限公司股东大会。

    第一百条 股东大会应当每年召开一次年会。有下列情形之一的,应当在两个月内召开临时股东大会:

    (一)董事人数不足本法规定人数或者公司章程所定人数的三分之二时;

    (二)公司未弥补的亏损达实收股本总额三分之一时;

    (三)单独或者合计持有公司百分之十以上股份的股东请求时;

    (四)董事会认为必要时;

    (五)监事会提议召开时;

    (六)公司章程规定的其他情形。

    第一百零一条 股东大会会议由董事会召集,董事长主持;董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由副董事长主持;副董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由半数以上董事共同推举一名董事主持。

    董事会不能履行或者不履行召集股东大会会议职责的,监事会应当及时召集和主持;监事会不召集和主持的,连续九十日以上单独或者合计持有公司百分之十以上股份的股东可以自行召集和主持。

    第一百零二条 召开股东大会会议,应当将会议召开的时间、地点和审议的事项于会议召开二十日前通知各股东;临时股东大会应当于会议召开十五日前通知各股东;发行无记名股票的,应当于会议召开三十日前公告会议召开的时间、地点和审议事项。

    单独或者合计持有公司百分之三以上股份的股东,可以在股东大会召开十日前提出临时提案并书面提交董事会;董事会应当在收到提案后二日内通知其他股东,并将该临时提案提交股东大会审议。临时提案的内容应当属于股东大会职权范围,并有明确议题和具体决议事项。

    股东大会不得对前两款通知中未列明的事项作出决议。

    无记名股票持有人出席股东大会会议的,应当于会议召开五日前至股东大会闭会时将股票交存于公司。

    第一百零三条 股东出席股东大会会议,所持每一股份有一表决权。但是,公司持有的本公司股份没有表决权。

    股东大会作出决议,必须经出席会议的股东所持表决权过半数通过。但是,股东大会作出修改公司章程、增加或者减少注册资本的决议,以及公司合并、分立、解散或者变更公司形式的决议,必须经出席会议的股东所持表决权的三分之二以上通过。

    第一百零四条 本法和公司章程规定公司转让、受让重大资产或者对外提供担保等事项必须经股东大会作出决议的,董事会应当及时召集股东大会会议,由股东大会就上述事项进行表决。

    第一百零五条 股东大会选举董事、监事,可以依照公司章程的规定或者股东大会的决议,实行累积投票制。

    本法所称累积投票制,是指股东大会选举董事或者监事时,每一股份拥有与应选董事或者监事人数相同的表决权,股东拥有的表决权可以集中使用。

    第一百零六条 股东可以委托代理人出席股东大会会议,代理人应当向公司提交股东授权委托书,并在授权范围内行使表决权。

    第一百零七条 股东大会应当对所议事项的决定作成会议记录,主持人、出席会议的董事应当在会议记录上签名。会议记录应当与出席股东的签名册及代理出席的委托书一并保存。

第三节 董事会、经理

    第一百零八条 股份有限公司设董事会,其成员为五人至十九人。

    董事会成员中可以有公司职工代表。董事会中的职工代表由公司职工通过职工代表大会、职工大会或者其他形式民主选举产生。

    本法第四十五条关于有限责任公司董事任期的规定,适用于股份有限公司董事。

    本法第四十六条关于有限责任公司董事会职权的规定,适用于股份有限公司董事会。

    第一百零九条 董事会设董事长一人,可以设副董事长。董事长和副董事长由董事会以全体董事的过半数选举产生。

    董事长召集和主持董事会会议,检查董事会决议的实施情况。副董事长协助董事长工作,董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由副董事长履行职务;副董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由半数以上董事共同推举一名董事履行职务。

    第一百一十条 董事会每年度至少召开两次会议,每次会议应当于会议召开十日前通知全体董事和监事。

    代表十分之一以上表决权的股东、三分之一以上董事或者监事会,可以提议召开董事会临时会议。董事长应当自接到提议后十日内,召集和主持董事会会议。

    董事会召开临时会议,可以另定召集董事会的通知方式和通知时限。

    第一百一十一条 董事会会议应有过半数的董事出席方可举行。董事会作出决议,必须经全体董事的过半数通过。

    董事会决议的表决,实行一人一票。

    第一百一十二条 董事会会议,应由董事本人出席;董事因故不能出席,可以书面委托其他董事代为出席,委托书中应载明授权范围。

    董事会应当对会议所议事项的决定作成会议记录,出席会议的董事应当在会议记录上签名。

    董事应当对董事会的决议承担责任。董事会的决议违反法律、行政法规或者公司章程、股东大会决议,致使公司遭受严重损失的,参与决议的董事对公司负赔偿责任。但经证明在表决时曾表明异议并记载于会议记录的,该董事可以免除责任。

    第一百一十三条 股份有限公司设经理,由董事会决定聘任或者解聘。

    本法第四十九条关于有限责任公司经理职权的规定,适用于股份有限公司经理。

    第一百一十四条 公司董事会可以决定由董事会成员兼任经理。

    第一百一十五条 公司不得直接或者通过子公司向董事、监事、高级管理人员提供借款。

    第一百一十六条 公司应当定期向股东披露董事、监事、高级管理人员从公司获得报酬的情况。

第四节 监 事 会

    第一百一十七条 股份有限公司设监事会,其成员不得少于三人。

    监事会应当包括股东代表和适当比例的公司职工代表,其中职工代表的比例不得低于三分之一,具体比例由公司章程规定。监事会中的职工代表由公司职工通过职工代表大会、职工大会或者其他形式民主选举产生。

    监事会设主席一人,可以设副主席。监事会主席和副主席由全体监事过半数选举产生。监事会主席召集和主持监事会会议;监事会主席不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由监事会副主席召集和主持监事会会议;监事会副主席不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由半数以上监事共同推举一名监事召集和主持监事会会议。

    董事、高级管理人员不得兼任监事。

    本法第五十二条关于有限责任公司监事任期的规定,适用于股份有限公司监事。

    第一百一十八条 本法第五十三条、第五十四条关于有限责任公司监事会职权的规定,适用于股份有限公司监事会。

    监事会行使职权所必需的费用,由公司承担。

    第一百一十九条 监事会每六个月至少召开一次会议。监事可以提议召开临时监事会会议。

    监事会的议事方式和表决程序,除本法有规定的外,由公司章程规定。

    监事会决议应当经半数以上监事通过。

    监事会应当对所议事项的决定作成会议记录,出席会议的监事应当在会议记录上签名。

    第五节上市公司组织机构的特别规定

    第一百二十条 本法所称上市公司,是指其股票在证券交易所上市交易的股份有限公司。

    第一百二十一条 上市公司在一年内购买、出售重大资产或者担保金额超过公司资产总额百分之三十的,应当由股东大会作出决议,并经出席会议的股东所持表决权的三分之二以上通过。

    第一百二十二条 上市公司设独立董事,具体办法由国务院规定。

    第一百二十三条 上市公司设董事会秘书,负责公司股东大会和董事会会议的筹备、文件保管以及公司股东资料的管理,办理信息披露事务等事宜。

    第一百二十四条 上市公司董事与董事会会议决议事项所涉及的企业有关联关系的,不得对该项决议行使表决权,也不得代理其他董事行使表决权。该董事会会议由过半数的无关联关系董事出席即可举行,董事会会议所作决议须经无关联关系董事过半数通过。出席董事会的无关联关系董事人数不足三人的,应将该事项提交上市公司股东大会审议。

第五章 股份有限公司的股份发行和转让

第一节 股 份 发 行

  第一百二十五条 股份有限公司的资本划分为股份,每一股的金额相等。

    公司的股份采取股票的形式。股票是公司签发的证明股东所持股份的凭证。

    第一百二十六条 股份的发行,实行公平、公正的原则,同种类的每一股份应当具有同等权利。

    同次发行的同种类股票,每股的发行条件和价格应当相同;任何单位或者个人所认购的股份,每股应当支付相同价额。

    第一百二十七条 股票发行价格可以按票面金额,也可以超过票面金额,但不得低于票面金额。

    第一百二十八条 股票采用纸面形式或者国务院证券监督管理机构规定的其他形式。

    股票应当载明下列主要事项:

    (一)公司名称;

    (二)公司成立日期;

    (三)股票种类、票面金额及代表的股份数;

    (四)股票的编号。

    股票由法定代表人签名,公司盖章。

    发起人的股票,应当标明发起人股票字样。

    第一百二十九条 公司发行的股票,可以为记名股票,也可以为无记名股票。

    公司向发起人、法人发行的股票,应当为记名股票,并应当记载该发起人、法人的名称或者姓名,不得另立户名或者以代表人姓名记名。

    第一百三十条 公司发行记名股票的,应当置备股东名册,记载下列事项:

    (一)股东的姓名或者名称及住所;

    (二)各股东所持股份数;

    (三)各股东所持股票的编号;

    (四)各股东取得股份的日期。

    发行无记名股票的,公司应当记载其股票数量、编号及发行日期。

    第一百三十一条 国务院可以对公司发行本法规定以外的其他种类的股份,另行作出规定。

    第一百三十二条 股份有限公司成立后,即向股东正式交付股票。公司成立前不得向股东交付股票。

    第一百三十三条 公司发行新股,股东大会应当对下列事项作出决议:

    (一)新股种类及数额;

    (二)新股发行价格;

    (三)新股发行的起止日期;

    (四)向原有股东发行新股的种类及数额。

    第一百三十四条 公司经国务院证券监督管理机构核准公开发行新股时,必须公告新股招股说明书和财务会计报告,并制作认股书。

    本法第八十七条、第八十八条的规定适用于公司公开发行新股。

    第一百三十五条 公司发行新股,可以根据公司经营情况和财务状况,确定其作价方案。

    第一百三十六条 公司发行新股募足股款后,必须向公司登记机关办理变更登记,并公告。

第二节 股 份 转 让

    第一百三十七条 股东持有的股份可以依法转让。

    第一百三十八条 股东转让其股份,应当在依法设立的证券交易场所进行或者按照国务院规定的其他方式进行。

    第一百三十九条 记名股票,由股东以背书方式或者法律、行政法规规定的其他方式转让;转让后由公司将受让人的姓名或者名称及住所记载于股东名册。

    股东大会召开前二十日内或者公司决定分配股利的基准日前五日内,不得进行前款规定的股东名册的变更登记。但是,法律对上市公司股东名册变更登记另有规定的,从其规定。

    第一百四十条 无记名股票的转让,由股东将该股票交付给受让人后即发生转让的效力。

    第一百四十一条 发起人持有的本公司股份,自公司成立之日起一年内不得转让。公司公开发行股份前已发行的股份,自公司股票在证券交易所上市交易之日起一年内不得转让。

    公司董事、监事、高级管理人员应当向公司申报所持有的本公司的股份及其变动情况,在任职期间每年转让的股份不得超过其所持有本公司股份总数的百分之二十五;所持本公司股份自公司股票上市交易之日起一年内不得转让。上述人员离职后半年内,不得转让其所持有的本公司股份。公司章程可以对公司董事、监事、高级管理人员转让其所持有的本公司股份作出其他限制性规定。

    第一百四十二条 公司不得收购本公司股份。但是,有下列情形之一的除外:

    (一)减少公司注册资本;

    (二)与持有本公司股份的其他公司合并;

    (三)将股份用于员工持股计划或者股权激励;

    (四)股东因对股东大会作出的公司合并、分立决议持异议,要求公司收购其股份;

    (五)将股份用于转换上市公司发行的可转换为股票的公司债券;

    (六)上市公司为维护公司价值及股东权益所必需。

    公司因前款第(一)项、第(二)项规定的情形收购本公司股份的,应当经股东大会决议;公司因前款第(三)项、第(五)项、第(六)项规定的情形收购本公司股份的,可以依照公司章程的规定或者股东大会的授权,经三分之二以上董事出席的董事会会议决议。

    公司依照本条第一款规定收购本公司股份后,属于第(一)项情形的,应当自收购之日起十日内注销;属于第(二)项、第(四)项情形的,应当在六个月内转让或者注销;属于第(三)项、第(五)项、第(六)项情形的,公司合计持有的本公司股份数不得超过本公司已发行股份总额的百分之十,并应当在三年内转让或者注销。

    上市公司收购本公司股份的,应当依照《中华人民共和国证券法》的规定履行信息披露义务。上市公司因本条第一款第(三)项、第(五)项、第(六)项规定的情形收购本公司股份的,应当通过公开的集中交易方式进行。

    公司不得接受本公司的股票作为质押权的标的。

    第一百四十三条 记名股票被盗、遗失或者灭失,股东可以依照《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》规定的公示催告程序,请求人民法院宣告该股票失效。人民法院宣告该股票失效后,股东可以向公司申请补发股票。

    第一百四十四条 上市公司的股票,依照有关法律、行政法规及证券交易所交易规则上市交易。

    第一百四十五条 上市公司必须依照法律、行政法规的规定,公开其财务状况、经营情况及重大诉讼,在每会计年度内半年公布一次财务会计报告。

第六章 公司董事、监事、高级管理人员的资格和义务

    第一百四十六条 有下列情形之一的,不得担任公司的董事、监事、高级管理人员:

    (一)无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力;

    (二)因贪污、贿赂、侵占财产、挪用财产或者破坏社会主义市场经济秩序,被判处刑罚,执行期满未逾五年,或者因犯罪被剥夺政治权利,执行期满未逾五年;

    (三)担任破产清算的公司、企业的董事或者厂长、经理,对该公司、企业的破产负有个人责任的,自该公司、企业破产清算完结之日起未逾三年;

    (四)担任因违法被吊销营业执照、责令关闭的公司、企业的法定代表人,并负有个人责任的,自该公司、企业被吊销营业执照之日起未逾三年;

    (五)个人所负数额较大的债务到期未清偿。

    公司违反前款规定选举、委派董事、监事或者聘任高级管理人员的,该选举、委派或者聘任无效。

    董事、监事、高级管理人员在任职期间出现本条第一款所列情形的,公司应当解除其职务。

    第一百四十七条 董事、监事、高级管理人员应当遵守法律、行政法规和公司章程,对公司负有忠实义务和勤勉义务。

    董事、监事、高级管理人员不得利用职权收受贿赂或者其他非法收入,不得侵占公司的财产。

    第一百四十八条 董事、高级管理人员不得有下列行为:

    (一)挪用公司资金;

    (二)将公司资金以其个人名义或者以其他个人名义开立账户存储;

    (三)违反公司章程的规定,未经股东会、股东大会或者董事会同意,将公司资金借贷给他人或者以公司财产为他人提供担保;

    (四)违反公司章程的规定或者未经股东会、股东大会同意,与本公司订立合同或者进行交易;

    (五)未经股东会或者股东大会同意,利用职务便利为自己或者他人谋取属于公司的商业机会,自营或者为他人经营与所任职公司同类的业务;

    (六)接受他人与公司交易的佣金归为己有;

    (七)擅自披露公司秘密;

    (八)违反对公司忠实义务的其他行为。

    董事、高级管理人员违反前款规定所得的收入应当归公司所有。

    第一百四十九条 董事、监事、高级管理人员执行公司职务时违反法律、行政法规或者公司章程的规定,给公司造成损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

    第一百五十条 股东会或者股东大会要求董事、监事、高级管理人员列席会议的,董事、监事、高级管理人员应当列席并接受股东的质询。

    董事、高级管理人员应当如实向监事会或者不设监事会的有限责任公司的监事提供有关情况和资料,不得妨碍监事会或者监事行使职权。

    第一百五十一条 董事、高级管理人员有本法第一百四十九条规定的情形的,有限责任公司的股东、股份有限公司连续一百八十日以上单独或者合计持有公司百分之一以上股份的股东,可以书面请求监事会或者不设监事会的有限责任公司的监事向人民法院提起诉讼;监事有本法第一百四十九条规定的情形的,前述股东可以书面请求董事会或者不设董事会的有限责任公司的执行董事向人民法院提起诉讼。

    监事会、不设监事会的有限责任公司的监事,或者董事会、执行董事收到前款规定的股东书面请求后拒绝提起诉讼,或者自收到请求之日起三十日内未提起诉讼,或者情况紧急、不立即提起诉讼将会使公司利益受到难以弥补的损害的,前款规定的股东有权为了公司的利益以自己的名义直接向人民法院提起诉讼。

    他人侵犯公司合法权益,给公司造成损失的,本条第一款规定的股东可以依照前两款的规定向人民法院提起诉讼。

    第一百五十二条 董事、高级管理人员违反法律、行政法规或者公司章程的规定,损害股东利益的,股东可以向人民法院提起诉讼。

第七章 公 司 债 券

    第一百五十三条 本法所称公司债券,是指公司依照法定程序发行、约定在一定期限还本付息的有价证券。

    公司发行公司债券应当符合《中华人民共和国证券法》规定的发行条件。

    第一百五十四条 发行公司债券的申请经国务院授权的部门核准后,应当公告公司债券募集办法。

    公司债券募集办法中应当载明下列主要事项:

    (一)公司名称;

    (二)债券募集资金的用途;

    (三)债券总额和债券的票面金额;

    (四)债券利率的确定方式;

    (五)还本付息的期限和方式;

    (六)债券担保情况;

    (七)债券的发行价格、发行的起止日期;

    (八)公司净资产额;

    (九)已发行的尚未到期的公司债券总额;

    (十)公司债券的承销机构。

    第一百五十五条 公司以实物券方式发行公司债券的,必须在债券上载明公司名称、债券票面金额、利率、偿还期限等事项,并由法定代表人签名,公司盖章。

    第一百五十六条 公司债券,可以为记名债券,也可以为无记名债券。

    第一百五十七条 公司发行公司债券应当置备公司债券存根簿。

    发行记名公司债券的,应当在公司债券存根簿上载明下列事项:

    (一)债券持有人的姓名或者名称及住所;

    (二)债券持有人取得债券的日期及债券的编号;

    (三)债券总额,债券的票面金额、利率、还本付息的期限和方式;

    (四)债券的发行日期。

    发行无记名公司债券的,应当在公司债券存根簿上载明债券总额、利率、偿还期限和方式、发行日期及债券的编号。

    第一百五十八条 记名公司债券的登记结算机构应当建立债券登记、存管、付息、兑付等相关制度。

    第一百五十九条 公司债券可以转让,转让价格由转让人与受让人约定。

    公司债券在证券交易所上市交易的,按照证券交易所的交易规则转让。

    第一百六十条 记名公司债券,由债券持有人以背书方式或者法律、行政法规规定的其他方式转让;转让后由公司将受让人的姓名或者名称及住所记载于公司债券存根簿。

    无记名公司债券的转让,由债券持有人将该债券交付给受让人后即发生转让的效力。

    第一百六十一条 上市公司经股东大会决议可以发行可转换为股票的公司债券,并在公司债券募集办法中规定具体的转换办法。上市公司发行可转换为股票的公司债券,应当报国务院证券监督管理机构核准。

    发行可转换为股票的公司债券,应当在债券上标明可转换公司债券字样,并在公司债券存根簿上载明可转换公司债券的数额。

    第一百六十二条 发行可转换为股票的公司债券的,公司应当按照其转换办法向债券持有人换发股票,但债券持有人对转换股票或者不转换股票有选择权。

第八章 公司财务、会计

    第一百六十三条 公司应当依照法律、行政法规和国务院财政部门的规定建立本公司的财务、会计制度。

    第一百六十四条 公司应当在每一会计年度终了时编制财务会计报告,并依法经会计师事务所审计。

    财务会计报告应当依照法律、行政法规和国务院财政部门的规定制作。

    第一百六十五条 有限责任公司应当依照公司章程规定的期限将财务会计报告送交各股东。

    股份有限公司的财务会计报告应当在召开股东大会年会的二十日前置备于本公司,供股东查阅;公开发行股票的股份有限公司必须公告其财务会计报告。

    第一百六十六条 公司分配当年税后利润时,应当提取利润的百分之十列入公司法定公积金。公司法定公积金累计额为公司注册资本的百分之五十以上的,可以不再提取。

    公司的法定公积金不足以弥补以前年度亏损的,在依照前款规定提取法定公积金之前,应当先用当年利润弥补亏损。

    公司从税后利润中提取法定公积金后,经股东会或者股东大会决议,还可以从税后利润中提取任意公积金。

    公司弥补亏损和提取公积金后所余税后利润,有限责任公司依照本法第三十四条的规定分配;股份有限公司按照股东持有的股份比例分配,但股份有限公司章程规定不按持股比例分配的除外。

    股东会、股东大会或者董事会违反前款规定,在公司弥补亏损和提取法定公积金之前向股东分配利润的,股东必须将违反规定分配的利润退还公司。

    公司持有的本公司股份不得分配利润。

    第一百六十七条 股份有限公司以超过股票票面金额的发行价格发行股份所得的溢价款以及国务院财政部门规定列入资本公积金的其他收入,应当列为公司资本公积金。

    第一百六十八条 公司的公积金用于弥补公司的亏损、扩大公司生产经营或者转为增加公司资本。但是,资本公积金不得用于弥补公司的亏损。

    法定公积金转为资本时,所留存的该项公积金不得少于转增前公司注册资本的百分之二十五。

    第一百六十九条 公司聘用、解聘承办公司审计业务的会计师事务所,依照公司章程的规定,由股东会、股东大会或者董事会决定。

    公司股东会、股东大会或者董事会就解聘会计师事务所进行表决时,应当允许会计师事务所陈述意见。

    第一百七十条 公司应当向聘用的会计师事务所提供真实、完整的会计凭证、会计账簿、财务会计报告及其他会计资料,不得拒绝、隐匿、谎报。

    第一百七十一条 公司除法定的会计账簿外,不得另立会计账簿。

    对公司资产,不得以任何个人名义开立账户存储。

第九章 公司合并、分立、增资、减资

    第一百七十二条 公司合并可以采取吸收合并或者新设合并。

    一个公司吸收其他公司为吸收合并,被吸收的公司解散。两个以上公司合并设立一个新的公司为新设合并,合并各方解散。

    第一百七十三条 公司合并,应当由合并各方签订合并协议,并编制资产负债表及财产清单。公司应当自作出合并决议之日起十日内通知债权人,并于三十日内在报纸上公告。债权人自接到通知书之日起三十日内,未接到通知书的自公告之日起四十五日内,可以要求公司清偿债务或者提供相应的担保。

    第一百七十四条 公司合并时,合并各方的债权、债务,应当由合并后存续的公司或者新设的公司承继。

    第一百七十五条 公司分立,其财产作相应的分割。

    公司分立,应当编制资产负债表及财产清单。公司应当自作出分立决议之日起十日内通知债权人,并于三十日内在报纸上公告。

    第一百七十六条 公司分立前的债务由分立后的公司承担连带责任。但是,公司在分立前与债权人就债务清偿达成的书面协议另有约定的除外。

    第一百七十七条 公司需要减少注册资本时,必须编制资产负债表及财产清单。

    公司应当自作出减少注册资本决议之日起十日内通知债权人,并于三十日内在报纸上公告。债权人自接到通知书之日起三十日内,未接到通知书的自公告之日起四十五日内,有权要求公司清偿债务或者提供相应的担保。

    第一百七十八条 有限责任公司增加注册资本时,股东认缴新增资本的出资,依照本法设立有限责任公司缴纳出资的有关规定执行。

    股份有限公司为增加注册资本发行新股时,股东认购新股,依照本法设立股份有限公司缴纳股款的有关规定执行。

    第一百七十九条 公司合并或者分立,登记事项发生变更的,应当依法向公司登记机关办理变更登记;公司解散的,应当依法办理公司注销登记;设立新公司的,应当依法办理公司设立登记。

    公司增加或者减少注册资本,应当依法向公司登记机关办理变更登记。

第十章 公司解散和清算

    第一百八十条 公司因下列原因解散:

    (一)公司章程规定的营业期限届满或者公司章程规定的其他解散事由出现;

    (二)股东会或者股东大会决议解散;

    (三)因公司合并或者分立需要解散;

    (四)依法被吊销营业执照、责令关闭或者被撤销;

    (五)人民法院依照本法第一百八十二条的规定予以解散。

    第一百八十一条 公司有本法第一百八十条第(一)项情形的,可以通过修改公司章程而存续。

    依照前款规定修改公司章程,有限责任公司须经持有三分之二以上表决权的股东通过,股份有限公司须经出席股东大会会议的股东所持表决权的三分之二以上通过。

    第一百八十二条 公司经营管理发生严重困难,继续存续会使股东利益受到重大损失,通过其他途径不能解决的,持有公司全部股东表决权百分之十以上的股东,可以请求人民法院解散公司。

    第一百八十三条 公司因本法第一百八十条第(一)项、第(二)项、第(四)项、第(五)项规定而解散的,应当在解散事由出现之日起十五日内成立清算组,开始清算。有限责任公司的清算组由股东组成,股份有限公司的清算组由董事或者股东大会确定的人员组成。逾期不成立清算组进行清算的,债权人可以申请人民法院指定有关人员组成清算组进行清算。人民法院应当受理该申请,并及时组织清算组进行清算。

    第一百八十四条 清算组在清算期间行使下列职权:

    (一)清理公司财产,分别编制资产负债表和财产清单;

    (二)通知、公告债权人;

    (三)处理与清算有关的公司未了结的业务;

    (四)清缴所欠税款以及清算过程中产生的税款;

    (五)清理债权、债务;

    (六)处理公司清偿债务后的剩余财产;

    (七)代表公司参与民事诉讼活动。

    第一百八十五条 清算组应当自成立之日起十日内通知债权人,并于六十日内在报纸上公告。债权人应当自接到通知书之日起三十日内,未接到通知书的自公告之日起四十五日内,向清算组申报其债权。

    债权人申报债权,应当说明债权的有关事项,并提供证明材料。清算组应当对债权进行登记。

    在申报债权期间,清算组不得对债权人进行清偿。

    第一百八十六条 清算组在清理公司财产、编制资产负债表和财产清单后,应当制定清算方案,并报股东会、股东大会或者人民法院确认。

    公司财产在分别支付清算费用、职工的工资、社会保险费用和法定补偿金,缴纳所欠税款,清偿公司债务后的剩余财产,有限责任公司按照股东的出资比例分配,股份有限公司按照股东持有的股份比例分配。

    清算期间,公司存续,但不得开展与清算无关的经营活动。公司财产在未依照前款规定清偿前,不得分配给股东。

    第一百八十七条 清算组在清理公司财产、编制资产负债表和财产清单后,发现公司财产不足清偿债务的,应当依法向人民法院申请宣告破产。

    公司经人民法院裁定宣告破产后,清算组应当将清算事务移交给人民法院。

    第一百八十八条 公司清算结束后,清算组应当制作清算报告,报股东会、股东大会或者人民法院确认,并报送公司登记机关,申请注销公司登记,公告公司终止。

    第一百八十九条 清算组成员应当忠于职守,依法履行清算义务。

    清算组成员不得利用职权收受贿赂或者其他非法收入,不得侵占公司财产。

    清算组成员因故意或者重大过失给公司或者债权人造成损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

    第一百九十条 公司被依法宣告破产的,依照有关企业破产的法律实施破产清算。

第十一章 外国公司的分支机构

    第一百九十一条 本法所称外国公司是指依照外国法律在中国境外设立的公司。

    第一百九十二条 外国公司在中国境内设立分支机构,必须向中国主管机关提出申请,并提交其公司章程、所属国的公司登记证书等有关文件,经批准后,向公司登记机关依法办理登记,领取营业执照。

    外国公司分支机构的审批办法由国务院另行规定。

    第一百九十三条 外国公司在中国境内设立分支机构,必须在中国境内指定负责该分支机构的代表人或者代理人,并向该分支机构拨付与其所从事的经营活动相适应的资金。

    对外国公司分支机构的经营资金需要规定最低限额的,由国务院另行规定。

    第一百九十四条 外国公司的分支机构应当在其名称中标明该外国公司的国籍及责任形式。

    外国公司的分支机构应当在本机构中置备该外国公司章程。

    第一百九十五条 外国公司在中国境内设立的分支机构不具有中国法人资格。

    外国公司对其分支机构在中国境内进行经营活动承担民事责任。

    第一百九十六条 经批准设立的外国公司分支机构,在中国境内从事业务活动,必须遵守中国的法律,不得损害中国的社会公共利益,其合法权益受中国法律保护。

    第一百九十七条 外国公司撤销其在中国境内的分支机构时,必须依法清偿债务,依照本法有关公司清算程序的规定进行清算。未清偿债务之前,不得将其分支机构的财产移至中国境外。

第十二章 法 律 责 任

    第一百九十八条 违反本法规定,虚报注册资本、提交虚假材料或者采取其他欺诈手段隐瞒重要事实取得公司登记的,由公司登记机关责令改正,对虚报注册资本的公司,处以虚报注册资本金额百分之五以上百分之十五以下的罚款;对提交虚假材料或者采取其他欺诈手段隐瞒重要事实的公司,处以五万元以上五十万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,撤销公司登记或者吊销营业执照。

    第一百九十九条 公司的发起人、股东虚假出资,未交付或者未按期交付作为出资的货币或者非货币财产的,由公司登记机关责令改正,处以虚假出资金额百分之五以上百分之十五以下的罚款。

    第二百条 公司的发起人、股东在公司成立后,抽逃其出资的,由公司登记机关责令改正,处以所抽逃出资金额百分之五以上百分之十五以下的罚款。

    第二百零一条 公司违反本法规定,在法定的会计账簿以外另立会计账簿的,由县级以上人民政府财政部门责令改正,处以五万元以上五十万元以下的罚款。

    第二百零二条 公司在依法向有关主管部门提供的财务会计报告等材料上作虚假记载或者隐瞒重要事实的,由有关主管部门对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处以三万元以上三十万元以下的罚款。

    第二百零三条 公司不依照本法规定提取法定公积金的,由县级以上人民政府财政部门责令如数补足应当提取的金额,可以对公司处以二十万元以下的罚款。

    第二百零四条 公司在合并、分立、减少注册资本或者进行清算时,不依照本法规定通知或者公告债权人的,由公司登记机关责令改正,对公司处以一万元以上十万元以下的罚款。

    公司在进行清算时,隐匿财产,对资产负债表或者财产清单作虚假记载或者在未清偿债务前分配公司财产的,由公司登记机关责令改正,对公司处以隐匿财产或者未清偿债务前分配公司财产金额百分之五以上百分之十以下的罚款;对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处以一万元以上十万元以下的罚款。

    第二百零五条 公司在清算期间开展与清算无关的经营活动的,由公司登记机关予以警告,没收违法所得。

    第二百零六条 清算组不依照本法规定向公司登记机关报送清算报告,或者报送清算报告隐瞒重要事实或者有重大遗漏的,由公司登记机关责令改正。

    清算组成员利用职权徇私舞弊、谋取非法收入或者侵占公司财产的,由公司登记机关责令退还公司财产,没收违法所得,并可以处以违法所得一倍以上五倍以下的罚款。

    第二百零七条 承担资产评估、验资或者验证的机构提供虚假材料的,由公司登记机关没收违法所得,处以违法所得一倍以上五倍以下的罚款,并可以由有关主管部门依法责令该机构停业、吊销直接责任人员的资格证书,吊销营业执照。

    承担资产评估、验资或者验证的机构因过失提供有重大遗漏的报告的,由公司登记机关责令改正,情节较重的,处以所得收入一倍以上五倍以下的罚款,并可以由有关主管部门依法责令该机构停业、吊销直接责任人员的资格证书,吊销营业执照。

    承担资产评估、验资或者验证的机构因其出具的评估结果、验资或者验证证明不实,给公司债权人造成损失的,除能够证明自己没有过错的外,在其评估或者证明不实的金额范围内承担赔偿责任。

    第二百零八条 公司登记机关对不符合本法规定条件的登记申请予以登记,或者对符合本法规定条件的登记申请不予登记的,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依法给予行政处分。

    第二百零九条 公司登记机关的上级部门强令公司登记机关对不符合本法规定条件的登记申请予以登记,或者对符合本法规定条件的登记申请不予登记的,或者对违法登记进行包庇的,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依法给予行政处分。

    第二百一十条 未依法登记为有限责任公司或者股份有限公司,而冒用有限责任公司或者股份有限公司名义的,或者未依法登记为有限责任公司或者股份有限公司的分公司,而冒用有限责任公司或者股份有限公司的分公司名义的,由公司登记机关责令改正或者予以取缔,可以并处十万元以下的罚款。

    第二百一十一条 公司成立后无正当理由超过六个月未开业的,或者开业后自行停业连续六个月以上的,可以由公司登记机关吊销营业执照。

    公司登记事项发生变更时,未依照本法规定办理有关变更登记的,由公司登记机关责令限期登记;逾期不登记的,处以一万元以上十万元以下的罚款。

    第二百一十二条 外国公司违反本法规定,擅自在中国境内设立分支机构的,由公司登记机关责令改正或者关闭,可以并处五万元以上二十万元以下的罚款。

    第二百一十三条 利用公司名义从事危害国家安全、社会公共利益的严重违法行为的,吊销营业执照。

    第二百一十四条 公司违反本法规定,应当承担民事赔偿责任和缴纳罚款、罚金的,其财产不足以支付时,先承担民事赔偿责任。

    第二百一十五条 违反本法规定,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

第十三章 附  则

    第二百一十六条 本法下列用语的含义:

    (一)高级管理人员,是指公司的经理、副经理、财务负责人,上市公司董事会秘书和公司章程规定的其他人员。

    (二)控股股东,是指其出资额占有限责任公司资本总额百分之五十以上或者其持有的股份占股份有限公司股本总额百分之五十以上的股东;出资额或者持有股份的比例虽然不足百分之五十,但依其出资额或者持有的股份所享有的表决权已足以对股东会、股东大会的决议产生重大影响的股东。

    (三)实际控制人,是指虽不是公司的股东,但通过投资关系、协议或者其他安排,能够实际支配公司行为的人。

    (四)关联关系,是指公司控股股东、实际控制人、董事、监事、高级管理人员与其直接或者间接控制的企业之间的关系,以及可能导致公司利益转移的其他关系。但是,国家控股的企业之间不仅因为同受国家控股而具有关联关系。

    第二百一十七条 外商投资的有限责任公司和股份有限公司适用本法;有关外商投资的法律另有规定的,适用其规定。

    第二百一十八条 本法自2006年1月1日起施行。




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Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China (2017 Revision) Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800
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Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China (2017 Revision)



中华人民共和国民事诉讼法(2017修正)
发布:2017-06-27实施:2017-07-01现行有效
法律修订

1991年4月9日第七届全国人民代表大会第四次会议通过

根据2007年10月28日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三十次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国民事诉讼法〉的决定》第一次修正

根据2012年8月31日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十八次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国民事诉讼法〉的决定》第二次修正

根据2017年6月27日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十八次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国民事诉讼法〉和〈中华人民共和国行政诉讼法〉的决定》第三次修正

第一编 总  则
第一章 任务、适用范围和基本原则
第一条 立法依据
中华人民共和国民事诉讼法以宪法为根据,结合我国民事审判工作的经验和实际情况制定。
第二条 立法目的
中华人民共和国民事诉讼法的任务,是保护当事人行使诉讼权利,保证人民法院查明事实,分清是非,正确适用法律,及时审理民事案件,确认民事权利义务关系,制裁民事违法行为,保护当事人的合法权益,教育公民自觉遵守法律,维护社会秩序、经济秩序,保障社会主义建设事业顺利进行。
第三条 适用范围
人民法院受理公民之间、法人之间、其他组织之间以及他们相互之间因财产关系和人身关系提起的民事诉讼,适用本法的规定。
第四条 空间效力
凡在中华人民共和国领域内进行民事诉讼,必须遵守本法。
第五条 同等原则和对等原则
外国人、无国籍人、外国企业和组织在人民法院起诉、应诉,同中华人民共和国公民、法人和其他组织有同等的诉讼权利义务。 外国法院对中华人民共和国公民、法人和其他组织的民事诉讼权利加以限制的,中华人民共和国人民法院对该国公民、企业和组织的民事诉讼权利,实行对等原则。
第六条 法院独立审判原则
民事案件的审判权由人民法院行使。 人民法院依照法律规定对民事案件独立进行审判,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。
第七条 法院审判原则
人民法院审理民事案件,必须以事实为根据,以法律为准绳。
第八条 当事人平等原则
民事诉讼当事人有平等的诉讼权利。人民法院审理民事案件,应当保障和便利当事人行使诉讼权利,对当事人在适用法律上一律平等。
第九条 法院调解原则
人民法院审理民事案件,应当根据自愿和合法的原则进行调解;调解不成的,应当及时判决。
第十条 审判基本制度
人民法院审理民事案件,依照法律规定实行合议、回避、公开审判和两审终审制度。
第十一条 使用母语进行诉讼
各民族公民都有用本民族语言、文字进行民事诉讼的权利。 在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,人民法院应当用当地民族通用的语言、文字进行审理和发布法律文书。 人民法院应当对不通晓当地民族通用的语言、文字的诉讼参与人提供翻译。
第十二条 辩论原则
人民法院审理民事案件时,当事人有权进行辩论。
第十三条 诚信原则和处分原则
民事诉讼应当遵循诚实信用原则。
第十四条 检察监督原则
人民检察院有权对民事诉讼实行法律监督。
第十五条 支持起诉
机关、社会团体、企业事业单位对损害国家、集体或者个人民事权益的行为,可以支持受损害的单位或者个人向人民法院起诉。
第十六条 变通规定
民族自治地方的人民代表大会根据宪法和本法的原则,结合当地民族的具体情况,可以制定变通或者补充的规定。自治区的规定,报全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准。自治州、自治县的规定,报省或者自治区的人民代表大会常务委员会批准,并报全国人民代表大会常务委员会备案。
第二章 管  辖
第十七条 基层法院管辖
基层人民法院管辖第一审民事案件,但本法另有规定的除外。
第十八条 中级法院管辖
中级人民法院管辖下列第一审民事案件: (一)重大涉外案件; (二)在本辖区有重大影响的案件; (三)最高人民法院确定由中级人民法院管辖的案件。
第十九条 高级法院管辖
高级人民法院管辖在本辖区有重大影响的第一审民事案件。
第二十条 最高法院管辖
最高人民法院管辖下列第一审民事案件: (一)在全国有重大影响的案件; (二)认为应当由本院审理的案件。
第二十一条 一般地域管辖
对公民提起的民事诉讼,由被告住所地人民法院管辖;被告住所地与经常居住地不一致的,由经常居住地人民法院管辖。 对法人或者其他组织提起的民事诉讼,由被告住所地人民法院管辖。 同一诉讼的几个被告住所地、经常居住地在两个以上人民法院辖区的,各该人民法院都有管辖权。
第二十二条 特别规定
下列民事诉讼,由原告住所地人民法院管辖;原告住所地与经常居住地不一致的,由原告经常居住地人民法院管辖: (一)对不在中华人民共和国领域内居住的人提起的有关身份关系的诉讼; (二)对下落不明或者宣告失踪的人提起的有关身份关系的诉讼; (三)对被采取强制性教育措施的人提起的诉讼; (四)对被监禁的人提起的诉讼。
第二十三条 合同纠纷管辖
因合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由被告住所地或者合同履行地人民法院管辖。
第二十四条 保险合同纠纷管辖
因保险合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由被告住所地或者保险标的物所在地人民法院管辖。
第二十五条 票据纠纷管辖
因票据纠纷提起的诉讼,由票据支付地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。
第二十六条 公司纠纷管辖
因公司设立、确认股东资格、分配利润、解散等纠纷提起的诉讼,由公司住所地人民法院管辖。
第二十七条 运输合同纠纷管辖
因铁路、公路、水上、航空运输和联合运输合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由运输始发地、目的地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。
第二十八条 侵权诉讼管辖
因侵权行为提起的诉讼,由侵权行为地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。
第二十九条 交通事故管辖
因铁路、公路、水上和航空事故请求损害赔偿提起的诉讼,由事故发生地或者车辆、船舶最先到达地、航空器最先降落地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。
第三十条 海损事故管辖
因船舶碰撞或者其他海事损害事故请求损害赔偿提起的诉讼,由碰撞发生地、碰撞船舶最先到达地、加害船舶被扣留地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。
第三十一条 海难救助管辖
因海难救助费用提起的诉讼,由救助地或者被救助船舶最先到达地人民法院管辖。
第三十二条 共同海损管辖
因共同海损提起的诉讼,由船舶最先到达地、共同海损理算地或者航程终止地的人民法院管辖。
第三十三条 专属管辖
下列案件,由本条规定的人民法院专属管辖: (一)因不动产纠纷提起的诉讼,由不动产所在地人民法院管辖; (二)因港口作业中发生纠纷提起的诉讼,由港口所在地人民法院管辖; (三)因继承遗产纠纷提起的诉讼,由被继承人死亡时住所地或者主要遗产所在地人民法院管辖。
第三十四条 协议管辖
合同或者其他财产权益纠纷的当事人可以书面协议选择被告住所地、合同履行地、合同签订地、原告住所地、标的物所在地等与争议有实际联系的地点的人民法院管辖,但不得违反本法对级别管辖和专属管辖的规定。
第三十五条 共同管辖
两个以上人民法院都有管辖权的诉讼,原告可以向其中一个人民法院起诉;原告向两个以上有管辖权的人民法院起诉的,由最先立案的人民法院管辖。
第三十六条 移送管辖
人民法院发现受理的案件不属于本院管辖的,应当移送有管辖权的人民法院,受移送的人民法院应当受理。受移送的人民法院认为受移送的案件依照规定不属于本院管辖的,应当报请上级人民法院指定管辖,不得再自行移送。
第三十七条 指定管辖
有管辖权的人民法院由于特殊原因,不能行使管辖权的,由上级人民法院指定管辖。 人民法院之间因管辖权发生争议,由争议双方协商解决;协商解决不了的,报请它们的共同上级人民法院指定管辖。
第三十八条 管辖权转移
上级人民法院有权审理下级人民法院管辖的第一审民事案件;确有必要将本院管辖的第一审民事案件交下级人民法院审理的,应当报请其上级人民法院批准。 下级人民法院对它所管辖的第一审民事案件,认为需要由上级人民法院审理的,可以报请上级人民法院审理。
第三章 审判组织
第三十九条 一审审判组织
人民法院审理第一审民事案件,由审判员、陪审员共同组成合议庭或者由审判员组成合议庭。合议庭的成员人数,必须是单数。 适用简易程序审理的民事案件,由审判员一人独任审理。 陪审员在执行陪审职务时,与审判员有同等的权利义务。
第四十条 二、重、再审审判组织
人民法院审理第二审民事案件,由审判员组成合议庭。合议庭的成员人数,必须是单数。 发回重审的案件,原审人民法院应当按照第一审程序另行组成合议庭。 审理再审案件,原来是第一审的,按照第一审程序另行组成合议庭;原来是第二审的或者是上级人民法院提审的,按照第二审程序另行组成合议庭。
第四十一条 审判长
合议庭的审判长由院长或者庭长指定审判员一人担任;院长或者庭长参加审判的,由院长或者庭长担任。
第四十二条 评议原则
合议庭评议案件,实行少数服从多数的原则。评议应当制作笔录,由合议庭成员签名。评议中的不同意见,必须如实记入笔录。
第四十三条 审判人员职责
审判人员应当依法秉公办案。 审判人员不得接受当事人及其诉讼代理人请客送礼。 审判人员有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁判行为的,应当追究法律责任;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
第四章 回  避
第四十四条 回避理由
审判人员有下列情形之一的,应当自行回避,当事人有权用口头或者书面方式申请他们回避: (一)是本案当事人或者当事人、诉讼代理人近亲属的; (二)与本案有利害关系的; (三)与本案当事人、诉讼代理人有其他关系,可能影响对案件公正审理的。 审判人员接受当事人、诉讼代理人请客送礼,或者违反规定会见当事人、诉讼代理人的,当事人有权要求他们回避。 审判人员有前款规定的行为的,应当依法追究法律责任。 前三款规定,适用于书记员、翻译人员、鉴定人、勘验人。
第四十五条 回避申请
当事人提出回避申请,应当说明理由,在案件开始审理时提出;回避事由在案件开始审理后知道的,也可以在法庭辩论终结前提出。 被申请回避的人员在人民法院作出是否回避的决定前,应当暂停参与本案的工作,但案件需要采取紧急措施的除外。
第四十六条 回避决定
院长担任审判长时的回避,由审判委员会决定;审判人员的回避,由院长决定;其他人员的回避,由审判长决定。
第四十七条 回避后果和复议
人民法院对当事人提出的回避申请,应当在申请提出的三日内,以口头或者书面形式作出决定。申请人对决定不服的,可以在接到决定时申请复议一次。复议期间,被申请回避的人员,不停止参与本案的工作。人民法院对复议申请,应当在三日内作出复议决定,并通知复议申请人。
第五章 诉讼参加人
第四十八条 当事人诉讼权利能力
公民、法人和其他组织可以作为民事诉讼的当事人。 法人由其法定代表人进行诉讼。其他组织由其主要负责人进行诉讼。
第四十九条 诉讼权利义务
当事人有权委托代理人,提出回避申请,收集、提供证据,进行辩论,请求调解,提起上诉,申请执行。 当事人可以查阅本案有关材料,并可以复制本案有关材料和法律文书。查阅、复制本案有关材料的范围和办法由最高人民法院规定。 当事人必须依法行使诉讼权利,遵守诉讼秩序,履行发生法律效力的判决书、裁定书和调解书。
第五十条 诉讼和解
双方当事人可以自行和解。
第五十一条 诉讼请求处分和反诉
原告可以放弃或者变更诉讼请求。被告可以承认或者反驳诉讼请求,有权提起反诉。
第五十二条 共同诉讼
当事人一方或者双方为二人以上,其诉讼标的是共同的,或者诉讼标的是同一种类、人民法院认为可以合并审理并经当事人同意的,为共同诉讼。 共同诉讼的一方当事人对诉讼标的有共同权利义务的,其中一人的诉讼行为经其他共同诉讼人承认,对其他共同诉讼人发生效力;对诉讼标的没有共同权利义务的,其中一人的诉讼行为对其他共同诉讼人不发生效力。
第五十三条 代表人诉讼一
当事人一方人数众多的共同诉讼,可以由当事人推选代表人进行诉讼。代表人的诉讼行为对其所代表的当事人发生效力,但代表人变更、放弃诉讼请求或者承认对方当事人的诉讼请求,进行和解,必须经被代表的当事人同意。
第五十四条 代表人诉讼二
诉讼标的是同一种类、当事人一方人数众多在起诉时人数尚未确定的,人民法院可以发出公告,说明案件情况和诉讼请求,通知权利人在一定期间向人民法院登记。 向人民法院登记的权利人可以推选代表人进行诉讼;推选不出代表人的,人民法院可以与参加登记的权利人商定代表人。 代表人的诉讼行为对其所代表的当事人发生效力,但代表人变更、放弃诉讼请求或者承认对方当事人的诉讼请求,进行和解,必须经被代表的当事人同意。 人民法院作出的判决、裁定,对参加登记的全体权利人发生效力。未参加登记的权利人在诉讼时效期间提起诉讼的,适用该判决、裁定。
第五十五条 公益诉讼
对污染环境、侵害众多消费者合法权益等损害社会公共利益的行为,法律规定的机关和有关组织可以向人民法院提起诉讼。 人民检察院在履行职责中发现破坏生态环境和资源保护、食品药品安全领域侵害众多消费者合法权益等损害社会公共利益的行为,在没有前款规定的机关和组织或者前款规定的机关和组织不提起诉讼的情况下,可以向人民法院提起诉讼。前款规定的机关或者组织提起诉讼的,人民检察院可以支持起诉。
第五十六条 诉讼第三人和第三人异议之诉
对当事人双方的诉讼标的,第三人认为有独立请求权的,有权提起诉讼。 对当事人双方的诉讼标的,第三人虽然没有独立请求权,但案件处理结果同他有法律上的利害关系的,可以申请参加诉讼,或者由人民法院通知他参加诉讼。人民法院判决承担民事责任的第三人,有当事人的诉讼权利义务。 前两款规定的第三人,因不能归责于本人的事由未参加诉讼,但有证据证明发生法律效力的判决、裁定、调解书的部分或者全部内容错误,损害其民事权益的,可以自知道或者应当知道其民事权益受到损害之日起六个月内,向作出该判决、裁定、调解书的人民法院提起诉讼。人民法院经审理,诉讼请求成立的,应当改变或者撤销原判决、裁定、调解书;诉讼请求不成立的,驳回诉讼请求。
第五十七条 法定代理人
无诉讼行为能力人由他的监护人作为法定代理人代为诉讼。法定代理人之间互相推诿代理责任的,由人民法院指定其中一人代为诉讼。
第五十八条 委托代理人
当事人、法定代理人可以委托一至二人作为诉讼代理人。 下列人员可以被委托为诉讼代理人: (一)律师、基层法律服务工作者; (二)当事人的近亲属或者工作人员; (三)当事人所在社区、单位以及有关社会团体推荐的公民。
第五十九条 授权委托书
委托他人代为诉讼,必须向人民法院提交由委托人签名或者盖章的授权委托书。 授权委托书必须记明委托事项和权限。诉讼代理人代为承认、放弃、变更诉讼请求,进行和解,提起反诉或者上诉,必须有委托人的特别授权。 侨居在国外的中华人民共和国公民从国外寄交或者托交的授权委托书,必须经中华人民共和国驻该国的使领馆证明;没有使领馆的,由与中华人民共和国有外交关系的第三国驻该国的使领馆证明,再转由中华人民共和国驻该第三国使领馆证明,或者由当地的爱国华侨团体证明。
第六十条 代理权变更和解除
诉讼代理人的权限如果变更或者解除,当事人应当书面告知人民法院,并由人民法院通知对方当事人。
第六十一条 代理人权利
代理诉讼的律师和其他诉讼代理人有权调查收集证据,可以查阅本案有关材料。查阅本案有关材料的范围和办法由最高人民法院规定。
第六十二条 离婚诉讼代理
离婚案件有诉讼代理人的,本人除不能表达意思的以外,仍应出庭;确因特殊情况无法出庭的,必须向人民法院提交书面意见。
第六章 证  据
第六十三条 证据种类
证据包括: (一)当事人的陈述; (二)书证; (三)物证; (四)视听资料; (五)电子数据; (六)证人证言; (七)鉴定意见; (八)勘验笔录。 证据必须查证属实,才能作为认定事实的根据。
第六十四条 证明责任和职权探知
当事人对自己提出的主张,有责任提供证据。 当事人及其诉讼代理人因客观原因不能自行收集的证据,或者人民法院认为审理案件需要的证据,人民法院应当调查收集。 人民法院应当按照法定程序,全面地、客观地审查核实证据。
第六十五条 举证期限
当事人对自己提出的主张应当及时提供证据。 人民法院根据当事人的主张和案件审理情况,确定当事人应当提供的证据及其期限。当事人在该期限内提供证据确有困难的,可以向人民法院申请延长期限,人民法院根据当事人的申请适当延长。当事人逾期提供证据的,人民法院应当责令其说明理由;拒不说明理由或者理由不成立的,人民法院根据不同情形可以不予采纳该证据,或者采纳该证据但予以训诫、罚款。
第六十六条 收到证据后处理程序
人民法院收到当事人提交的证据材料,应当出具收据,写明证据名称、页数、份数、原件或者复印件以及收到时间等,并由经办人员签名或者盖章。
第六十七条 法院调取证据
人民法院有权向有关单位和个人调查取证,有关单位和个人不得拒绝。 人民法院对有关单位和个人提出的证明文书,应当辨别真伪,审查确定其效力。
第六十八条 当事人质证
证据应当在法庭上出示,并由当事人互相质证。对涉及国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私的证据应当保密,需要在法庭出示的,不得在公开开庭时出示。
第六十九条 公证事实
经过法定程序公证证明的法律事实和文书,人民法院应当作为认定事实的根据,但有相反证据足以推翻公证证明的除外。
第七十条 最佳证据规则
书证应当提交原件。物证应当提交原物。提交原件或者原物确有困难的,可以提交复制品、照片、副本、节录本。 提交外文书证,必须附有中文译本。
第七十一条 视听资料
人民法院对视听资料,应当辨别真伪,并结合本案的其他证据,审查确定能否作为认定事实的根据。
第七十二条 证人条件、义务
凡是知道案件情况的单位和个人,都有义务出庭作证。有关单位的负责人应当支持证人作证。 不能正确表达意思的人,不能作证。
第七十三条 证人出庭作证
经人民法院通知,证人应当出庭作证。有下列情形之一的,经人民法院许可,可以通过书面证言、视听传输技术或者视听资料等方式作证: (一)因健康原因不能出庭的; (二)因路途遥远,交通不便不能出庭的; (三)因自然灾害等不可抗力不能出庭的; (四)其他有正当理由不能出庭的。
第七十四条 证人出庭作证费用承担
证人因履行出庭作证义务而支出的交通、住宿、就餐等必要费用以及误工损失,由败诉一方当事人负担。当事人申请证人作证的,由该当事人先行垫付;当事人没有申请,人民法院通知证人作证的,由人民法院先行垫付。
第七十五条 当事人陈述
人民法院对当事人的陈述,应当结合本案的其他证据,审查确定能否作为认定事实的根据。 当事人拒绝陈述的,不影响人民法院根据证据认定案件事实。
第七十六条 鉴定程序启动方式
当事人可以就查明事实的专门性问题向人民法院申请鉴定。当事人申请鉴定的,由双方当事人协商确定具备资格的鉴定人;协商不成的,由人民法院指定。 当事人未申请鉴定,人民法院对专门性问题认为需要鉴定的,应当委托具备资格的鉴定人进行鉴定。
第七十七条 鉴定人权利及鉴定意见形式
鉴定人有权了解进行鉴定所需要的案件材料,必要时可以询问当事人、证人。 鉴定人应当提出书面鉴定意见,在鉴定书上签名或者盖章。
第七十八条 鉴定人出庭作证制度
当事人对鉴定意见有异议或者人民法院认为鉴定人有必要出庭的,鉴定人应当出庭作证。经人民法院通知,鉴定人拒不出庭作证的,鉴定意见不得作为认定事实的根据;支付鉴定费用的当事人可以要求返还鉴定费用。
第七十九条 申请有专门知识的人出庭制度
当事人可以申请人民法院通知有专门知识的人出庭,就鉴定人作出的鉴定意见或者专业问题提出意见。
第八十条 勘验程序
勘验物证或者现场,勘验人必须出示人民法院的证件,并邀请当地基层组织或者当事人所在单位派人参加。当事人或者当事人的成年家属应当到场,拒不到场的,不影响勘验的进行。 有关单位和个人根据人民法院的通知,有义务保护现场,协助勘验工作。 勘验人应当将勘验情况和结果制作笔录,由勘验人、当事人和被邀参加人签名或者盖章。
第八十一条 证据保全
在证据可能灭失或者以后难以取得的情况下,当事人可以在诉讼过程中向人民法院申请保全证据,人民法院也可以主动采取保全措施。 因情况紧急,在证据可能灭失或者以后难以取得的情况下,利害关系人可以在提起诉讼或者申请仲裁前向证据所在地、被申请人住所地或者对案件有管辖权的人民法院申请保全证据。 证据保全的其他程序,参照适用本法第九章保全的有关规定。
第七章 期间、送达
第八十二条 期间种类和计算
期间包括法定期间和人民法院指定的期间。 期间以时、日、月、年计算。期间开始的时和日,不计算在期间内。 期间届满的最后一日是节假日的,以节假日后的第一日为期间届满的日期。 期间不包括在途时间,诉讼文书在期满前交邮的,不算过期。
第八十三条 期间耽误和顺延
当事人因不可抗拒的事由或者其他正当理由耽误期限的,在障碍消除后的十日内,可以申请顺延期限,是否准许,由人民法院决定。
第八十四条 送达回证
送达诉讼文书必须有送达回证,由受送达人在送达回证上记明收到日期,签名或者盖章。 受送达人在送达回证上的签收日期为送达日期。
第八十五条 直接送达
送达诉讼文书,应当直接送交受送达人。受送达人是公民的,本人不在交他的同住成年家属签收;受送达人是法人或者其他组织的,应当由法人的法定代表人、其他组织的主要负责人或者该法人、组织负责收件的人签收;受送达人有诉讼代理人的,可以送交其代理人签收;受送达人已向人民法院指定代收人的,送交代收人签收。 受送达人的同住成年家属,法人或者其他组织的负责收件的人,诉讼代理人或者代收人在送达回证上签收的日期为送达日期。
第八十六条 留置送达
受送达人或者他的同住成年家属拒绝接收诉讼文书的,送达人可以邀请有关基层组织或者所在单位的代表到场,说明情况,在送达回证上记明拒收事由和日期,由送达人、见证人签名或者盖章,把诉讼文书留在受送达人的住所;也可以把诉讼文书留在受送达人的住所,并采用拍照、录像等方式记录送达过程,即视为送达。
第八十七条 电子送达
经受送达人同意,人民法院可以采用传真、电子邮件等能够确认其收悉的方式送达诉讼文书,但判决书、裁定书、调解书除外。 采用前款方式送达的,以传真、电子邮件等到达受送达人特定系统的日期为送达日期。
第八十八条 委托及邮寄送达
直接送达诉讼文书有困难的,可以委托其他人民法院代为送达,或者邮寄送达。邮寄送达的,以回执上注明的收件日期为送达日期。
第八十九条 转交送达之一
受送达人是军人的,通过其所在部队团以上单位的政治机关转交。
第九十条 转交送达之二
受送达人被监禁的,通过其所在监所转交。 受送达人被采取强制性教育措施的,通过其所在强制性教育机构转交。
第九十一条 转交送达期间
代为转交的机关、单位收到诉讼文书后,必须立即交受送达人签收,以在送达回证上的签收日期,为送达日期。
第九十二条 公告送达
受送达人下落不明,或者用本节规定的其他方式无法送达的,公告送达。自发出公告之日起,经过六十日,即视为送达。 公告送达,应当在案卷中记明原因和经过。
第八章 调  解
第九十三条 调解的原则
人民法院审理民事案件,根据当事人自愿的原则,在事实清楚的基础上,分清是非,进行调解。
第九十四条 调解组织形式
人民法院进行调解,可以由审判员一人主持,也可以由合议庭主持,并尽可能就地进行。 人民法院进行调解,可以用简便方式通知当事人、证人到庭。
第九十五条 协助调解
人民法院进行调解,可以邀请有关单位和个人协助。被邀请的单位和个人,应当协助人民法院进行调解。
第九十六条 调解协议
调解达成协议,必须双方自愿,不得强迫。调解协议的内容不得违反法律规定。
第九十七条 调解书
调解达成协议,人民法院应当制作调解书。调解书应当写明诉讼请求、案件的事实和调解结果。 调解书由审 判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章,送达双方当事人。 调解书经双方当事人签收后,即具有法律效力。
第九十八条 不制作调解书
下列案件调解达成协议,人民法院可以不制作调解书: (一)调解和好的离婚案件; (二)调解维持收养关系的案件; (三)能够即时履行的案件; (四)其他不需要制作调解书的案件。 对不需要制作调解书的协议,应当记入笔录,由双方当事人、审判人员、书记员签名或者盖章后,即具有法律效力。
第九十九条 调解失败
调解未达成协议或者调解书送达前一方反悔的,人民法院应当及时判决。
第九章 保全和先予执行
第一百条 适用条件和程序
人民法院对于可能因当事人一方的行为或者其他原因,使判决难以执行或者造成当事人其他损害的案件,根据对方当事人的申请,可以裁定对其财产进行保全、责令其作出一定行为或者禁止其作出一定行为;当事人没有提出申请的,人民法院在必要时也可以裁定采取保全措施。 人民法院采取保全措施,可以责令申请人提供担保,申请人不提供担保的,裁定驳回申请。 人民法院接受申请后,对情况紧急的,必须在四十八小时内作出裁定;裁定采取保全措施的,应当立即开始执行。
第一百零一条 诉前财产保全
利害关系人因情况紧急,不立即申请保全将会使其合法权益受到难以弥补的损害的,可以在提起诉讼或者申请仲裁前向被保全财产所在地、被申请人住所地或者对案件有管辖权的人民法院申请采取保全措施。申请人应当提供担保,不提供担保的,裁定驳回申请。 人民法院接受申请后,必须在四十八小时内作出裁定;裁定采取保全措施的,应当立即开始执行。 申请人在人民法院采取保全措施后三十日内不依法提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的,人民法院应当解除保全。
第一百零二条 保全范围
保全限于请求的范围,或者与本案有关的财物。
第一百零三条 保全方式
财产保全采取查封、扣押、冻结或者法律规定的其他方法。人民法院保全财产后,应当立即通知被保全财产的人。 财产已被查封、冻结的,不得重复查封、冻结。
第一百零四条 保全解除
财产纠纷案件,被申请人提供担保的,人民法院应当裁定解除保全。
第一百零五条 保全错误补救
申请有错误的,申请人应当赔偿被申请人因保全所遭受的损失。
第一百零六条 先予执行范围
人民法院对下列案件,根据当事人的申请,可以裁定先予执行: (一)追索赡养费、扶养费、抚育费、抚恤金、医疗费用的; (二)追索劳动报酬的; (三)因情况紧急需要先予执行的。
第一百零七条 先予执行条件
人民法院裁定先予执行的,应当符合下列条件: (一)当事人之间权利义务关系明确,不先予执行将严重影响申请人的生活或者生产经营的; (二)被申请人有履行能力。 人民法院可以责令申请人提供担保,申请人不提供担保的,驳回申请。申请人败诉的,应当赔偿被申请人因先予执行遭受的财产损失。
第一百零八条 复议
当事人对保全或者先予执行的裁定不服的,可以申请复议一次。复议期间不停止裁定的执行。
第十章 对妨害民事诉讼的强制措施
第一百零九条 拒不到庭和拘传
人民法院对必须到庭的被告,经两次传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,可以拘传。
第一百一十条 违反法庭规则
诉讼参与人和其他人应当遵守法庭规则。 人民法院对违反法庭规则的人,可以予以训诫,责令退出法庭或者予以罚款、拘留。 人民法院对哄闹、冲击法庭,侮辱、诽谤、威胁、殴打审判人员,严重扰乱法庭秩序的人,依法追究刑事责任;情节较轻的,予以罚款、拘留。
第一百一十一条 妨害司法行为
诉讼参与人或者其他人有下列行为之一的,人民法院可以根据情节轻重予以罚款、拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任: (一)伪造、毁灭重要证据,妨碍人民法院审理案件的; (二)以暴力、威胁、贿买方法阻止证人作证或者指使、贿买、胁迫他人作伪证的; (三)隐藏、转移、变卖、毁损已被查封、扣押的财产,或者已被清点并责令其保管的财产,转移已被冻结的财产的; (四)对司法工作人员、诉讼参加人、证人、翻译人员、鉴定人、勘验人、协助执行的人,进行侮辱、诽谤、诬陷、殴打或者打击报复的; (五)以暴力、威胁或者其他方法阻碍司法工作人员执行职务的; (六)拒不履行人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定的。 人民法院对有前款规定的行为之一的单位,可以对其主要负责人或者直接责任人员予以罚款、拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
第一百一十二条 当事人恶意诉讼和调解
当事人之间恶意串通,企图通过诉讼、调解等方式侵害他人合法权益的,人民法院应当驳回其请求,并根据情节轻重予以罚款、拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
第一百一十三条 被执行人恶意诉讼、仲裁和调解
被执行人与他人恶意串通,通过诉讼、仲裁、调解等方式逃避履行法律文书确定的义务的,人民法院应当根据情节轻重予以罚款、拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
第一百一十四条 不履行协助调查或执行义务
有义务协助调查、执行的单位有下列行为之一的,人民法院除责令其履行协助义务外,并可以予以罚款: (一)有关单位拒绝或者妨碍人民法院调查取证的; (二)有关单位接到人民法院协助执行通知书后,拒不协助查询、扣押、冻结、划拨、变价财产的; (三)有关单位接到人民法院协助执行通知书后,拒不协助扣留被执行人的收入、办理有关财产权证照转移手续、转交有关票证、证照或者其他财产的; (四)其他拒绝协助执行的。 人民法院对有前款规定的行为之一的单位,可以对其主要负责人或者直接责任人员予以罚款;对仍不履行协助义务的,可以予以拘留;并可以向监察机关或者有关机关提出予以纪律处分的司法建议。
第一百一十五条 罚款和拘留
对个人的罚款金额,为人民币十万元以下。对单位的罚款金额,为人民币五万元以上一百万元以下。 拘留的期限,为十五日以下。 被拘留的人,由人民法院交公安机关看管。在拘留期间,被拘留人承认并改正错误的,人民法院可以决定提前解除拘留。
第一百一十六条 强制措施程序
拘传、罚款、拘留必须经院长批准。 拘传应当发拘传票。 罚款、拘留应当用决定书。对决定不服的,可以向上一级人民法院申请复议一次。复议期间不停止执行。
第一百一十七条 强制措施决定权
采取对妨害民事诉讼的强制措施必须由人民法院决定。任何单位和个人采取非法拘禁他人或者非法私自扣押他人财产追索债务的,应当依法追究刑事责任,或者予以拘留、罚款。
第十一章 诉讼费用
第一百一十八条 诉讼费用的种类和交纳
当事人进行民事诉讼,应当按照规定交纳案件受理费。财产案件除交纳案件受理费外,并按照规定交纳其他诉讼费用。 当事人交纳诉讼费用确有困难的,可以按照规定向人民法院申请缓交、减交或者免交。 收取诉讼费用的办法另行制定。
第二编 审判程序
第十二章 第一审普通程序
第一百一十九条 起诉条件
起诉必须符合下列条件: (一)原告是与本案有直接利害关系的公民、法人和其他组织; (二)有明确的被告; (三)有具体的诉讼请求和事实、理由; (四)属于人民法院受理民事诉讼的范围和受诉人民法院管辖。
第一百二十条 起诉形式
起诉应当向人民法院递交起诉状,并按照被告人数提出副本。 书写起诉状确有困难的,可以口头起诉,由人民法院记入笔录,并告知对方当事人。
第一百二十一条 起诉状
起诉状应当记明下列事项: (一)原告的姓名、性别、年龄、民族、职业、工作单位、住所、联系方式,法人或者其他组织的名称、住所和法定代表人或者主要负责人的姓名、职务、联系方式; (二)被告的姓名、性别、工作单位、住所等信息,法人或者其他组织的名称、住所等信息; (三)诉讼请求和所根据的事实与理由; (四)证据和证据来源,证人姓名和住所。
第一百二十二条 先行调解
当事人起诉到人民法院的民事纠纷,适宜调解的,先行调解,但当事人拒绝调解的除外。
第一百二十三条 立案和受理
人民法院应当保障当事人依照法律规定享有的起诉权利。对符合本法第一百一十九条的起诉,必须受理。符合起诉条件的,应当在七日内立案,并通知当事人;不符合起诉条件的,应当在七日内作出裁定书,不予受理;原告对裁定不服的,可以提起上诉。
第一百二十四条 不予受理
人民法院对下列起诉,分别情形,予以处理: (一)依照行政诉讼法的规定,属于行政诉讼受案范围的,告知原告提起行政诉讼; (二)依照法律规定,双方当事人达成书面仲裁协议申请仲裁、不得向人民法院起诉的,告知原告向仲裁机构申请仲裁; (三)依照法律规定,应当由其他机关处理的争议,告知原告向有关机关申请解决; (四)对不属于本院管辖的案件,告知原告向有管辖权的人民法院起诉; (五)对判决、裁定、调解书已经发生法律效力的案件,当事人又起诉的,告知原告申请再审,但人民法院准许撤诉的裁定除外; (六)依照法律规定,在一定期限内不得起诉的案件,在不得起诉的期限内起诉的,不予受理; (七)判决不准离婚和调解和好的离婚案件,判决、调解维持收养关系的案件,没有新情况、新理由,原告在六个月内又起诉的,不予受理。
第一百二十五条 送达起诉状和提出答辩状
人民法院应当在立案之日起五日内将起诉状副本发送被告,被告应当在收到之日起十五日内提出答辩状。答辩状应当记明被告的姓名、性别、年龄、民族、职业、工作单位、住所、联系方式;法人或者其他组织的名称、住所和法定代表人或者主要负责人的姓名、职务、联系方式。人民法院应当在收到答辩状之日起五日内将答辩状副本发送原告。 被告不提出答辩状的,不影响人民法院审理。
第一百二十六条 告知权利义务告知
人民法院对决定受理的案件,应当在受理案件通知书和应诉通知书中向当事人告知有关的诉讼权利义务,或者口头告知。
第一百二十七条 管辖权异议和应诉管辖
人民法院受理案件后,当事人对管辖权有异议的,应当在提交答辩状期间提出。人民法院对当事人提出的异议,应当审查。异议成立的,裁定将案件移送有管辖权的人民法院;异议不成立的,裁定驳回。 当事人未提出管辖异议,并应诉答辩的,视为受诉人民法院有管辖权,但违反级别管辖和专属管辖规定的除外。
第一百二十八条 合议庭成员告知
合议庭组成人员确定后,应当在三日内告知当事人。
第一百二十九条 审核取证
审判人员必须认真审核诉讼材料,调查收集必要的证据。
第一百三十条 调查程序
人民法院派出人员进行调查时,应当向被调查人出示证件。 调查笔录经被调查人校阅后,由被调查人、调查人签名或者盖章。
第一百三十一条 委托调查
人民法院在必要时可以委托外地人民法院调查。 委托调查,必须提出明确的项目和要求。受委托人民法院可以主动补充调查。 受委托人民法院收到委托书后,应当在三十日内完成调查。因故不能完成的,应当在上述期限内函告委托人民法院。
第一百三十二条 追加必要共同诉讼人
必须共同进行诉讼的当事人没有参加诉讼的,人民法院应当通知其参加诉讼。
第一百三十三条 决定案件适用程序
人民法院对受理的案件,分别情形,予以处理: (一)当事人没有争议,符合督促程序规定条件的,可以转入督促程序; (二)开庭前可以调解的,采取调解方式及时解决纠纷; (三)根据案件情况,确定适用简易程序或者普通程序; (四)需要开庭审理的,通过要求当事人交换证据等方式,明确争议焦点。
第一百三十四条 审理方式
人民法院审理民事案件,除涉及国家秘密、个人隐私或者法律另有规定的以外,应当公开进行。 离婚案件,涉及商业秘密的案件,当事人申请不公开审理的,可以不公开审理。
第一百三十五条 巡回审理
人民法院审理民事案件,根据需要进行巡回审理,就地办案。
第一百三十六条 开庭通知和公告
人民法院审理民事案件,应当在开庭三日前通知当事人和其他诉讼参与人。公开审理的,应当公告当事人姓名、案由和开庭的时间、地点。
第一百三十七条 庭前准备
开庭审理前,书记员应当查明当事人和其他诉讼参与人是否到庭,宣布法庭纪律。 开庭审理时,由审判长核对当事人,宣布案由,宣布审判人员、书记员名单,告知当事人有关的诉讼权利义务,询问当事人是否提出回避申请。
第一百三十八条 法庭调查顺序
法庭调查按照下列顺序进行: (一)当事人陈述; (二)告知证人的权利义务,证人作证,宣读未到庭的证人证言; (三)出示书证、物证、视听资料和电子数据; (四)宣读鉴定意见; (五)宣读勘验笔录。
第一百三十九条 当事人庭审权利
当事人在法庭上可以提出新的证据。 当事人经法庭许可,可以向证人、鉴定人、勘验人发问。 当事人要求重新进行调查、鉴定或者勘验的,是否准许,由人民法院决定。
第一百四十条 诉的合并
原告增加诉讼请求,被告提出反诉,第三人提出与本案有关的诉讼请求,可以合并审理。
第一百四十一条 法庭辩论
法庭辩论按照下列顺序进行: (一)原告及其诉讼代理人发言; (二)被告及其诉讼代理人答辩; (三)第三人及其诉讼代理人发言或者答辩; (四)互相辩论。 法庭辩论终结,由审判长按照原告、被告、第三人的先后顺序征询各方最后意见。
第一百四十二条 庭审调解
法庭辩论终结,应当依法作出判决。判决前能够调解的,还可以进行调解,调解不成的,应当及时判决。
第一百四十三条 按撤诉处理
原告经传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,或者未经法庭许可中途退庭的,可以按撤诉处理;被告反诉的,可以缺席判决。
第一百四十四条 缺席审判
被告经传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,或者未经法庭许可中途退庭的,可以缺席判决。
第一百四十五条 申请撤诉
宣判前,原告申请撤诉的,是否准许,由人民法院裁定。 人民法院裁定不准许撤诉的,原告经传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,可以缺席判决。
第一百四十六条 延期审理
有下列情形之一的,可以延期开庭审理: (一)必须到庭的当事人和其他诉讼参与人有正当理由没有到庭的; (二)当事人临时提出回避申请的; (三)需要通知新的证人到庭,调取新的证据,重新鉴定、勘验,或者需要补充调查的; (四)其他应当延期的情形。
第一百四十七条 法庭笔录
书记员应当将法庭审理的全部活动记入笔录,由审判人员和书记员签名。 法庭笔录应当当庭宣读,也可以告知当事人和其他诉讼参与人当庭或者在五日内阅读。当事人和其他诉讼参与人认为对自己的陈述记录有遗漏或者差错的,有权申请补正。如果不予补正,应当将申请记录在案。 法庭笔录由当事人和其他诉讼参与人签名或者盖章。拒绝签名盖章的,记明情况附卷。
第一百四十八条 宣判
人民法院对公开审理或者不公开审理的案件,一律公开宣告判决。 当庭宣判的,应当在十日内发送判决书;定期宣判的,宣判后立即发给判决书。 宣告判决时,必须告知当事人上诉权利、上诉期限和上诉的法院。 宣告离婚判决,必须告知当事人在判决发生法律效力前不得另行结婚。
第一百四十九条 审限
人民法院适用普通程序审理的案件,应当在立案之日起六个月内审结。有特殊情况需要延长的,由本院院长批准,可以延长六个月;还需要延长的,报请上级人民法院批准。
第一百五十条 诉讼中止
有下列情形之一的,中止诉讼: (一)一方当事人死亡,需要等待继承人表明是否参加诉讼的; (二)一方当事人丧失诉讼行为能力,尚未确定法定代理人的; (三)作为一方当事人的法人或者其他组织终止,尚未确定权利义务承受人的; (四)一方当事人因不可抗拒的事由,不能参加诉讼的; (五)本案必须以另一案的审理结果为依据,而另一案尚未审结的; (六)其他应当中止诉讼的情形。 中止诉讼的原因消除后,恢复诉讼。
第一百五十一条 诉讼终结
有下列情形之一的,终结诉讼: (一)原告死亡,没有继承人,或者继承人放弃诉讼权利的; (二)被告死亡,没有遗产,也没有应当承担义务的人的; (三)离婚案件一方当事人死亡的; (四)追索赡养费、扶养费、抚育费以及解除收养关系案件的一方当事人死亡的。
第一百五十二条 判决书
判决书应当写明判决结果和作出该判决的理由。判决书内容包括: (一)案由、诉讼请求、争议的事实和理由; (二)判决认定的事实和理由、适用的法律和理由; (三)判决结果和诉讼费用的负担; (四)上诉期间和上诉的法院。 判决书由审判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章。
第一百五十三条 先行判决
人民法院审理案件,其中一部分事实已经清楚,可以就该部分先行判决。
第一百五十四条 裁定范围
裁定适用于下列范围: (一)不予受理; (二)对管辖权有异议的; (三)驳回起诉; (四)保全和先予执行; (五)准许或者不准许撤诉; (六)中止或者终结诉讼; (七)补正判决书中的笔误; (八)中止或者终结执行; (九)撤销或者不予执行仲裁裁决; (十)不予执行公证机关赋予强制执行效力的债权文书; (十一)其他需要裁定解决的事项。 对前款第一项至第三项裁定,可以上诉。 裁定书应当写明裁定结果和作出该裁定的理由。裁定书由审判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章。口头裁定的,记入笔录。
第一百五十五条 生效裁判
最高人民法院的判决、裁定,以及依法不准上诉或者超过上诉期没有上诉的判决、裁定,是发生法律效力的判决、裁定。
第一百五十六条 公众查阅审判
公众可以查阅发生法律效力的判决书、裁定书,但涉及国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私的内容除外。
第十三章 简易程序
第一百五十七条 适用范围
基层人民法院和它派出的法庭审理事实清楚、权利义务关系明确、争议不大的简单的民事案件,适用本章规定。 基层人民法院和它派出的法庭审理前款规定以外的民事案件,当事人双方也可以约定适用简易程序。
第一百五十八条 起诉方式
对简单的民事案件,原告可以口头起诉。 当事人双方可以同时到基层人民法院或者它派出的法庭,请求解决纠纷。基层人民法院或者它派出的法庭可以当即审理,也可以另定日期审理。
第一百五十九条 传唤方式
基层人民法院和它派出的法庭审理简单的民事案件,可以用简便方式传唤当事人和证人、送达诉讼文书、审理案件,但应当保障当事人陈述意见的权利。
第一百六十条 独立审理和庭审程序
简单的民事案件由审判员一人独任审理,并不受本法第一百三十六条、第一百三十八条、第一百四十一条规定的限制。
第一百六十一条 审限
人民法院适用简易程序审理案件,应当在立案之日起三个月内审结。
第一百六十二条 小额诉讼案件
基层人民法院和它派出的法庭审理符合本法第一百五十七条第一款规定的简单的民事案件,标的额为各省、自治区、直辖市上年度就业人员年平均工资百分之三十以下的,实行一审终审。
第一百六十三条 转为普通程序
人民法院在审理过程中,发现案件不宜适用简易程序的,裁定转为普通程序。
第十四章 第二审程序
第一百六十四条 上诉权
当事人不服地方人民法院第一审判决的,有权在判决书送达之日起十五日内向上一级人民法院提起上诉。 当事人不服地方人民法院第一审裁定的,有权在裁定书送达之日起十日内向上一级人民法院提起上诉。
第一百六十五条 上诉状
上诉应当递交上诉状。上诉状的内容,应当包括当事人的姓名,法人的名称及其法定代表人的姓名或者其他组织的名称及其主要负责人的姓名;原审人民法院名称、案件的编号和案由;上诉的请求和理由。
第一百六十六条 提出上诉状
上诉状应当通过原审人民法院提出,并按照对方当事人或者代表人的人数提出副本。 当事人直接向第二审人民法院上诉的,第二审人民法院应当在五日内将上诉状移交原审人民法院。
第一百六十七条 原审法院工作
原审人民法院收到上诉状,应当在五日内将上诉状副本送达对方当事人,对方当事人在收到之日起十五日内提出答辩状。人民法院应当在收到答辩状之日起五日内将副本送达上诉人。对方当事人不提出答辩状的,不影响人民法院审理。 原审人民法院收到上诉状、答辩状,应当在五日内连同全部案卷和证据,报送第二审人民法院。
第一百六十八条 审理范围
第二审人民法院应当对上诉请求的有关事实和适用法律进行审查。
第一百六十九条 审理方式
第二审人民法院对上诉案件,应当组成合议庭,开庭审理。经过阅卷、调查和询问当事人,对没有提出新的事实、证据或者理由,合议庭认为不需要开庭审理的,可以不开庭审理。 第二审人民法院审理上诉案件,可以在本院进行,也可以到案件发生地或者原审人民法院所在地进行。
第一百七十条 二审裁判
第二审人民法院对上诉案件,经过审理,按照下列情形,分别处理: (一)原判决、裁定认定事实清楚,适用法律正确的,以判决、裁定方式驳回上诉,维持原判决、裁定; (二)原判决、裁定认定事实错误或者适用法律错误的,以判决、裁定方式依法改判、撤销或者变更; (三)原判决认定基本事实不清的,裁定撤销原判决,发回原审人民法院重审,或者查清事实后改判; (四)原判决遗漏当事人或者违法缺席判决等严重违反法定程序的,裁定撤销原判决,发回原审人民法院重审。 原审人民法院对发回重审的案件作出判决后,当事人提起上诉的,第二审人民法院不得再次发回重审。
第一百七十一条 裁定上诉处理
第二审人民法院对不服第一审人民法院裁定的上诉案件的处理,一律使用裁定。
第一百七十二条 二审调解
第二审人民法院审理上诉案件,可以进行调解。调解达成协议,应当制作调解书,由审判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章。调解书送达后,原审人民法院的判决即视为撤销。
第一百七十三条 撤回上诉
第二审人民法院判决宣告前,上诉人申请撤回上诉的,是否准许,由第二审人民法院裁定。
第一百七十四条 二审适用程序
第二审人民法院审理上诉案件,除依照本章规定外,适用第一审普通程序。
第一百七十五条 二审裁判效力
第二审人民法院的判决、裁定,是终审的判决、裁定。
第一百七十六条 二审审限
人民法院审理对判决的上诉案件,应当在第二审立案之日起三个月内审结。有特殊情况需要延长的,由本院院长批准。 人民法院审理对裁定的上诉案件,应当在第二审立案之日起三十日内作出终审裁定。
第十五章 特别程序
第一百七十七条 适用范围
人民法院审理选民资格案件、宣告失踪或者宣告死亡案件、认定公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力案件、认定财产无主案件、确认调解协议案件和实现担保物权案件,适用本章规定。本章没有规定的,适用本法和其他法律的有关规定。
第一百七十八条 审判组织
依照本章程序审理的案件,实行一审终审。选民资格案件或者重大、疑难的案件,由审判员组成合议庭审理;其他案件由审判员一人独任审理。
第一百七十九条 另行起诉
人民法院在依照本章程序审理案件的过程中,发现本案属于民事权益争议的,应当裁定终结特别程序,并告知利害关系人可以另行起诉。
第一百八十条 审限
人民法院适用特别程序审理的案件,应当在立案之日起三十日内或者公告期满后三十日内审结。有特殊情况需要延长的,由本院院长批准。但审理选民资格的案件除外。
第一百八十一条 起诉与管辖
公民不服选举委员会对选民资格的申诉所作的处理决定,可以在选举日的五日以前向选区所在地基层人民法院起诉。
第一百八十二条 审限和判决
人民法院受理选民资格案件后,必须在选举日前审结。 审理时,起诉人、选举委员会的代表和有关公民必须参加。 人民法院的判决书,应当在选举日前送达选举委员会和起诉人,并通知有关公民。
第一百八十三条 宣告失踪
公民下落不明满二年,利害关系人申请宣告其失踪的,向下落不明人住所地基层人民法院提出。 申请书应当写明失踪的事实、时间和请求,并附有公安机关或者其他有关机关关于该公民下落不明的书面证明。
第一百八十四条 宣告死亡
公民下落不明满四年,或者因意外事故下落不明满二年,或者因意外事故下落不明,经有关机关证明该公民不可能生存,利害关系人申请宣告其死亡的,向下落不明人住所地基层人民法院提出。 申请书应当写明下落不明的事实、时间和请求,并附有公安机关或者其他有关机关关于该公民下落不明的书面证明。
第一百八十五条 公告与判决
人民法院受理宣告失踪、宣告死亡案件后,应当发出寻找下落不明人的公告。宣告失踪的公告期间为三个月,宣告死亡的公告期间为一年。因意外事故下落不明,经有关机关证明该公民不可能生存的,宣告死亡的公告期间为三个月。 公告期间届满,人民法院应当根据被宣告失踪、宣告死亡的事实是否得到确认,作出宣告失踪、宣告死亡的判决或者驳回申请的判决。
第一百八十六条 撤销判决
被宣告失踪、宣告死亡的公民重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当作出新判决,撤销原判决。
第一百八十七条 管辖与申请书
申请认定公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力,由其近亲属或者其他利害关系人向该公民住所地基层人民法院提出。 申请书应当写明该公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的事实和根据。
第一百八十八条 鉴定
人民法院受理申请后,必要时应当对被请求认定为无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的公民进行鉴定。申请人已提供鉴定意见的,应当对鉴定意见进行审查。
第一百八十九条 代理、审理和判决
人民法院审理认定公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的案件,应当由该公民的近亲属为代理人,但申请人除外。近亲属互相推诿的,由人民法院指定其中一人为代理人。该公民健康情况许可的,还应当询问本人的意见。 人民法院经审理认定申请有事实根据的,判决该公民为无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力人;认定申请没有事实根据的,应当判决予以驳回。
第一百九十条 撤销判决
人民法院根据被认定为无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人或者他的监护人的申请,证实该公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的原因已经消除的,应当作出新判决,撤销原判决。
第一百九十一条 管辖与申请书
申请认定财产无主,由公民、法人或者其他组织向财产所在地基层人民法院提出。 申请书应当写明财产的种类、数量以及要求认定财产无主的根据。
第一百九十二条 公告和判决
人民法院受理申请后,经审查核实,应当发出财产认领公告。公告满一年无人认领的,判决认定财产无主,收归国家或者集体所有。
第一百九十三条 判决撤销
判决认定财产无主后,原财产所有人或者继承人出现,在民法通则规定的诉讼时效期间可以对财产提出请求,人民法院审查属实后,应当作出新判决,撤销原判决。
第一百九十四条 申请条件
申请司法确认调解协议,由双方当事人依照人民调解法等法律,自调解协议生效之日起三十日内,共同向调解组织所在地基层人民法院提出。
第一百九十五条 审查和裁定
人民法院受理申请后,经审查,符合法律规定的,裁定调解协议有效,一方当事人拒绝履行或者未全部履行的,对方当事人可以向人民法院申请执行;不符合法律规定的,裁定驳回申请,当事人可以通过调解方式变更原调解协议或者达成新的调解协议,也可以向人民法院提起诉讼。
第一百九十六条 申请条件
申请实现担保物权,由担保物权人以及其他有权请求实现担保物权的人依照物权法等法律,向担保财产所在地或者担保物权登记地基层人民法院提出。
第一百九十七条 审查和裁定
人民法院受理申请后,经审查,符合法律规定的,裁定拍卖、变卖担保财产,当事人依据该裁定可以向人民法院申请执行;不符合法律规定的,裁定驳回申请,当事人可以向人民法院提起诉讼。
第十六章 审判监督程序
第一百九十八条 法院决定再审
各级人民法院院长对本院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定、调解书,发现确有错误,认为需要再审的,应当提交审判委员会讨论决定。 最高人民法院对地方各级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定、调解书,上级人民法院对下级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定、调解书,发现确有错误的,有权提审或者指令下级人民法院再审。
第一百九十九条 当事人申请再审
当事人对已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,认为有错误的,可以向上一级人民法院申请再审;当事人一方人数众多或者当事人双方为公民的案件,也可以向原审人民法院申请再审。当事人申请再审的,不停止判决、裁定的执行。
第二百条 再审理由
当事人的申请符合下列情形之一的,人民法院应当再审: (一)有新的证据,足以推翻原判决、裁定的; (二)原判决、裁定认定的基本事实缺乏证据证明的; (三)原判决、裁定认定事实的主要证据是伪造的; (四)原判决、裁定认定事实的主要证据未经质证的; (五)对审理案件需要的主要证据,当事人因客观原因不能自行收集,书面申请人民法院调查收集,人民法院未调查收集的; (六)原判决、裁定适用法律确有错误的; (七)审判组织的组成不合法或者依法应当回避的审判人员没有回避的; (八)无诉讼行为能力人未经法定代理人代为诉讼或者应当参加诉讼的当事人,因不能归责于本人或者其诉讼代理人的事由,未参加诉讼的; (九)违反法律规定,剥夺当事人辩论权利的; (十)未经传票传唤,缺席判决的; (十一)原判决、裁定遗漏或者超出诉讼请求的; (十二)据以作出原判决、裁定的法律文书被撤销或者变更的; (十三)审判人员审理该案件时有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁判行为的。
第二百零一条 调解书再审
当事人对已经发生法律效力的调解书,提出证据证明调解违反自愿原则或者调解协议的内容违反法律的,可以申请再审。经人民法院审查属实的,应当再审。
第二百零二条 离婚判决不得再审
当事人对已经发生法律效力的解除婚姻关系的判决、调解书,不得申请再审。
第二百零三条 申请再审的材料
当事人申请再审的,应当提交再审申请书等材料。人民法院应当自收到再审申请书之日起五日内将再审申请书副本发送对方当事人。对方当事人应当自收到再审申请书副本之日起十五日内提交书面意见;不提交书面意见的,不影响人民法院审查。人民法院可以要求申请人和对方当事人补充有关材料,询问有关事项。
第二百零四条 审查申请和再审法庭
人民法院应当自收到再审申请书之日起三个月内审查,符合本法规定的,裁定再审;不符合本法规定的,裁定驳回申请。有特殊情况需要延长的,由本院院长批准。 因当事人申请裁定再审的案件由中级人民法院以上的人民法院审理,但当事人依照本法第一百九十九条的规定选择向基层人民法院申请再审的除外。最高人民法院、高级人民法院裁定再审的案件,由本院再审或者交其他人民法院再审,也可以交原审人民法院再审。
第二百零五条 申请再审期限
当事人申请再审,应当在判决、裁定发生法律效力后六个月内提出;有本法第二百条第一项、第三项、第十二项、第十三项规定情形的,自知道或者应当知道之日起六个月内提出。
第二百零六条 原裁判和调解书执行中止
按照审判监督程序决定再审的案件,裁定中止原判决、裁定、调解书的执行,但追索赡养费、扶养费、抚育费、抚恤金、医疗费用、劳动报酬等案件,可以不中止执行。
第二百零七条 再审适用程序
人民法院按照审判监督程序再审的案件,发生法律效力的判决、裁定是由第一审法院作出的,按照第一审程序审理,所作的判决、裁定,当事人可以上诉;发生法律效力的判决、裁定是由第二审法院作出的,按照第二审程序审理,所作的判决、裁定,是发生法律效力的判决、裁定;上级人民法院按照审判监督程序提审的,按照第二审程序审理,所作的判决、裁定是发生法律效力的判决、裁定。 人民法院审理再审案件,应当另行组成合议庭。
第二百零八条 检察院抗诉
最高人民检察院对各级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,上级人民检察院对下级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现有本法第二百条规定情形之一的,或者发现调解书损害国家利益、社会公共利益的,应当提出抗诉。 地方各级人民检察院对同级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现有本法第二百条规定情形之一的,或者发现调解书损害国家利益、社会公共利益的,可以向同级人民法院提出检察建议,并报上级人民检察院备案;也可以提请上级人民检察院向同级人民法院提出抗诉。 各级人民检察院对审判监督程序以外的其他审判程序中审判人员的违法行为,有权向同级人民法院提出检察建议。
第二百零九条 申请检察院建议或抗诉
有下列情形之一的,当事人可以向人民检察院申请检察建议或者抗诉: (一)人民法院驳回再审申请的; (二)人民法院逾期未对再审申请作出裁定的; (三)再审判决、裁定有明显错误的。 人民检察院对当事人的申请应当在三个月内进行审查,作出提出或者不予提出检察建议或者抗诉的决定。当事人不得再次向人民检察院申请检察建议或者抗诉。
第二百一十条 调查核实
人民检察院因履行法律监督职责提出检察建议或者抗诉的需要,可以向当事人或者案外人调查核实有关情况。
第二百一十一条 裁定再审
人民检察院提出抗诉的案件,接受抗诉的人民法院应当自收到抗诉书之日起三十日内作出再审的裁定;有本法第二百条第一项至第五项规定情形之一的,可以交下一级人民法院再审,但经该下一级人民法院再审的除外。
第二百一十二条 抗诉书
人民检察院决定对人民法院的判决、裁定、调解书提出抗诉的,应当制作抗诉书。
第二百一十三条 检察官出庭
人民检察院提出抗诉的案件,人民法院再审时,应当通知人民检察院派员出席法庭。
第十七章 督促程序
第二百一十四条 申请支付令条件
债权人请求债务人给付金钱、有价证券,符合下列条件的,可以向有管辖权的基层人民法院申请支付令: (一)债权人与债务人没有其他债务纠纷的; (二)支付令能够送达债务人的。 申请书应当写明请求给付金钱或者有价证券的数量和所根据的事实、证据。
第二百一十五条 受理支付令申请
债权人提出申请后,人民法院应当在五日内通知债权人是否受理。
第二百一十六条 支付令
人民法院受理申请后,经审查债权人提供的事实、证据,对债权债务关系明确、合法的,应当在受理之日起十五日内向债务人发出支付令;申请不成立的,裁定予以驳回。 债务人应当自收到支付令之日起十五日内清偿债务,或者向人民法院提出书面异议。 债务人在前款规定的期间不提出异议又不履行支付令的,债权人可以向人民法院申请执行。
第二百一十七条 债务人异议
人民法院收到债务人提出的书面异议后,经审查,异议成立的,应当裁定终结督促程序,支付令自行失效。 支付令失效的,转入诉讼程序,但申请支付令的一方当事人不同意提起诉讼的除外。
第十八章 公示催告程序
第二百一十八条 申请条件
按照规定可以背书转让的票据持有人,因票据被盗、遗失或者灭失,可以向票据支付地的基层人民法院申请公示催告。依照法律规定可以申请公示催告的其他事项,适用本章规定。 申请人应当向人民法院递交申请书,写明票面金额、发票人、持票人、背书人等票据主要内容和申请的理由、事实。
第二百一十九条 公告
人民法院决定受理申请,应当同时通知支付人停止支付,并在三日内发出公告,催促利害关系人申报权利。公示催告的期间,由人民法院根据情况决定,但不得少于六十日。
第二百二十条 止付通知及效力
支付人收到人民法院停止支付的通知,应当停止支付,至公示催告程序终结。 公示催告期间,转让票据权利的行为无效。
第二百二十一条 申报权利
利害关系人应当在公示催告期间向人民法院申报。 人民法院收到利害关系人的申报后,应当裁定终结公示催告程序,并通知申请人和支付人。 申请人或者申报人可以向人民法院起诉。
第二百二十二条 除权判决
没有人申报的,人民法院应当根据申请人的申请,作出判决,宣告票据无效。判决应当公告,并通知支付人。自判决公告之日起,申请人有权向支付人请求支付。
第二百二十三条 除权判决撤销之诉
利害关系人因正当理由不能在判决前向人民法院申报的,自知道或者应当知道判决公告之日起一年内,可以向作出判决的人民法院起诉。
第三编 执行程序
第十九章 一般规定
第二百二十四条 执行管辖
发生法律效力的民事判决、裁定,以及刑事判决、裁定中的财产部分,由第一审人民法院或者与第一审人民法院同级的被执行的财产所在地人民法院执行。 法律规定由人民法院执行的其他法律文书,由被执行人住所地或者被执行的财产所在地人民法院执行。
第二百二十五条 执行异议
当事人、利害关系人认为执行行为违反法律规定的,可以向负责执行的人民法院提出书面异议。当事人、利害关系人提出书面异议的,人民法院应当自收到书面异议之日起十五日内审查,理由成立的,裁定撤销或者改正;理由不成立的,裁定驳回。当事人、利害关系人对裁定不服的,可以自裁定送达之日起十日内向上一级人民法院申请复议。
第二百二十六条 向上级法院申请执行
人民法院自收到申请执行书之日起超过六个月未执行的,申请执行人可以向上一级人民法院申请执行。上一级人民法院经审查,可以责令原人民法院在一定期限内执行,也可以决定由本院执行或者指令其他人民法院执行。
第二百二十七条 案外人异议
执行过程中,案外人对执行标的提出书面异议的,人民法院应当自收到书面异议之日起十五日内审查,理由成立的,裁定中止对该标的的执行;理由不成立的,裁定驳回。案外人、当事人对裁定不服,认为原判决、裁定错误的,依照审判监督程序办理;与原判决、裁定无关的,可以自裁定送达之日起十五日内向人民法院提起诉讼。
第二百二十八条 执行机构
执行工作由执行员进行。 采取强制执行措施时,执行员应当出示证件。执行完毕后,应当将执行情况制作笔录,由在场的有关人员签名或者盖章。 人民法院根据需要可以设立执行机构。
第二百二十九条 委托执行
被执行人或者被执行的财产在外地的,可以委托当地人民法院代为执行。受委托人民法院收到委托函件后,必须在十五日内开始执行,不得拒绝。执行完毕后,应当将执行结果及时函复委托人民法院;在三十日内如果还未执行完毕,也应当将执行情况函告委托人民法院。 受委托人民法院自收到委托函件之日起十五日内不执行的,委托人民法院可以请求受委托人民法院的上级人民法院指令受委托人民法院执行。
第二百三十条 执行和解
在执行中,双方当事人自行和解达成协议的,执行员应当将协议内容记入笔录,由双方当事人签名或者盖章。 申请执行人因受欺诈、胁迫与被执行人达成和解协议,或者当事人不履行和解协议的,人民法院可以根据当事人的申请,恢复对原生效法律文书的执行。
第二百三十一条 执行担保
在执行中,被执行人向人民法院提供担保,并经申请执行人同意的,人民法院可以决定暂缓执行及暂缓执行的期限。被执行人逾期仍不履行的,人民法院有权执行被执行人的担保财产或者担保人的财产。
第二百三十二条 执行当事人变更
作为被执行人的公民死亡的,以其遗产偿还债务。作为被执行人的法人或者其他组织终止的,由其权利义务承受人履行义务。
第二百三十三条 执行回转
执行完毕后,据以执行的判决、裁定和其他法律文书确有错误,被人民法院撤销的,对已被执行的财产,人民法院应当作出裁定,责令取得财产的人返还;拒不返还的,强制执行。
第二百三十四条 调解书执行
人民法院制作的调解书的执行,适用本编的规定。
第二百三十五条 检察监督执行
人民检察院有权对民事执行活动实行法律监督。
第二十章 执行的申请和移送
第二百三十六条 执行开始方式
发生法律效力的民事判决、裁定,当事人必须履行。一方拒绝履行的,对方当事人可以向人民法院申请执行,也可以由审判员移送执行员执行。 调解书和其他应当由人民法院执行的法律文书,当事人必须履行。一方拒绝履行的,对方当事人可以向人民法院申请执行。
第二百三十七条 仲裁裁决执行
对依法设立的仲裁机构的裁决,一方当事人不履行的,对方当事人可以向有管辖权的人民法院申请执行。受申请的人民法院应当执行。 被申请人提出证据证明仲裁裁决有下列情形之一的,经人民法院组成合议庭审查核实,裁定不予执行: (一)当事人在合同中没有订有仲裁条款或者事后没有达成书面仲裁协议的; (二)裁决的事项不属于仲裁协议的范围或者仲裁机构无权仲裁的; (三)仲裁庭的组成或者仲裁的程序违反法定程序的; (四)裁决所根据的证据是伪造的; (五)对方当事人向仲裁机构隐瞒了足以影响公正裁决的证据的; (六)仲裁员在仲裁该案时有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁决行为的。 人民法院认定执行该裁决违背社会公共利益的,裁定不予执行。 裁定书应当送达双方当事人和仲裁机构。 仲裁裁决被人民法院裁定不予执行的,当事人可以根据双方达成的书面仲裁协议重新申请仲裁,也可以向人民法院起诉。
第二百三十八条 公证债权文书执行
对公证机关依法赋予强制执行效力的债权文书,一方当事人不履行的,对方当事人可以向有管辖权的人民法院申请执行,受申请的人民法院应当执行。 公证债权文书确有错误的,人民法院裁定不予执行,并将裁定书送达双方当事人和公证机关。
第二百三十九条 申请执行期限
申请执行的期间为二年。申请执行时效的中止、中断,适用法律有关诉讼时效中止、中断的规定。 前款规定的期间,从法律文书规定履行期间的最后一日起计算;法律文书规定分期履行的,从规定的每次履行期间的最后一日起计算;法律文书未规定履行期间的,从法律文书生效之日起计算。
第二百四十条 执行通知与强制执行
执行员接到申请执行书或者移交执行书,应当向被执行人发出执行通知,并可以立即采取强制执行措施。
第二十一章 执行措施
第二百四十一条 被执行人报告财产义务
被执行人未按执行通知履行法律文书确定的义务,应当报告当前以及收到执行通知之日前一年的财产情况。被执行人拒绝报告或者虚假报告的,人民法院可以根据情节轻重对被执行人或者其法定代理人、有关单位的主要负责人或者直接责任人员予以罚款、拘留。
第二百四十二条 法院有权采取执行措施
被执行人未按执行通知履行法律文书确定的义务,人民法院有权向有关单位查询被执行人的存款、债券、股票、基金份额等财产情况。人民法院有权根据不同情形扣押、冻结、划拨、变价被执行人的财产。人民法院查询、扣押、冻结、划拨、变价的财产不得超出被执行人应当履行义务的范围。 人民法院决定扣押、冻结、划拨、变价财产,应当作出裁定,并发出协助执行通知书,有关单位必须办理。
第二百四十三条 扣留提取收入
被执行人未按执行通知履行法律文书确定的义务,人民法院有权扣留、提取被执行人应当履行义务部分的收入。但应当保留被执行人及其所扶养家属的生活必需费用。 人民法院扣留、提取收入时,应当作出裁定,并发出协助执行通知书,被执行人所在单位、银行、信用合作社和其他有储蓄业务的单位必须办理。
第二百四十四条 法院合法采取执行措施
被执行人未按执行通知履行法律文书确定的义务,人民法院有权查封、扣押、冻结、拍卖、变卖被执行人应当履行义务部分的财产。但应当保留被执行人及其所扶养家属的生活必需品。 采取前款措施,人民法院应当作出裁定。
第二百四十五条 查扣程序
人民法院查封、扣押财产时,被执行人是公民的,应当通知被执行人或者他的成年家属到场;被执行人是法人或者其他组织的,应当通知其法定代表人或者主要负责人到场。拒不到场的,不影响执行。被执行人是公民的,其工作单位或者财产所在地的基层组织应当派人参加。 对被查封、扣押的财产,执行员必须造具清单,由在场人签名或者盖章后,交被执行人一份。被执行人是公民的,也可以交他的成年家属一份。
第二百四十六条 查封财产保管
被查封的财产,执行员可以指定被执行人负责保管。因被执行人的过错造成的损失,由被执行人承担。
第二百四十七条 拍卖和变卖
财产被查封、扣押后,执行员应当责令被执行人在指定期间履行法律文书确定的义务。被执行人逾期不履行的,人民法院应当拍卖被查封、扣押的财产;不适于拍卖或者当事人双方同意不进行拍卖的,人民法院可以委托有关单位变卖或者自行变卖。国家禁止自由买卖的物品,交有关单位按照国家规定的价格收购。
第二百四十八条 搜查措施
被执行人不履行法律文书确定的义务,并隐匿财产的,人民法院有权发出搜查令,对被执行人及其住所或者财产隐匿地进行搜查。 采取前款措施,由院长签发搜查令。
第二百四十九条 交付财物或者票证
法律文书指定交付的财物或者票证,由执行员传唤双方当事人当面交付,或者由执行员转交,并由被交付人签收。 有关单位持有该项财物或者票证的,应当根据人民法院的协助执行通知书转交,并由被交付人签收。 有关公民持有该项财物或者票证的,人民法院通知其交出。拒不交出的,强制执行。
第二百五十条 对不动产执行
强制迁出房屋或者强制退出土地,由院长签发公告,责令被执行人在指定期间履行。被执行人逾期不履行的,由执行员强制执行。 强制执行时,被执行人是公民的,应当通知被执行人或者他的成年家属到场;被执行人是法人或者其他组织的,应当通知其法定代表人或者主要负责人到场。拒不到场的,不影响执行。被执行人是公民的,其工作单位或者房屋、土地所在地的基层组织应当派人参加。执行员应当将强制执行情况记入笔录,由在场人签名或者盖章。 强制迁出房屋被搬出的财物,由人民法院派人运至指定处所,交给被执行人。被执行人是公民的,也可以交给他的成年家属。因拒绝接收而造成的损失,由被执行人承担。
第二百五十一条 证照转移
在执行中,需要办理有关财产权证照转移手续的,人民法院可以向有关单位发出协助执行通知书,有关单位必须办理。
第二百五十二条 对行为执行
对判决、裁定和其他法律文书指定的行为,被执行人未按执行通知履行的,人民法院可以强制执行或者委托有关单位或者其他人完成,费用由被执行人承担。
第二百五十三条 迟延履行
被执行人未按判决、裁定和其他法律文书指定的期间履行给付金钱义务的,应当加倍支付迟延履行期间的债务利息。被执行人未按判决、裁定和其他法律文书指定的期间履行其他义务的,应当支付迟延履行金。
第二百五十四条 继续执行
人民法院采取本法第二百四十二条、第二百四十三条、第二百四十四条规定的执行措施后,被执行人仍不能偿还债务的,应当继续履行义务。债权人发现被执行人有其他财产的,可以随时请求人民法院执行。
第二百五十五条 执威慑制度
被执行人不履行法律文书确定的义务的,人民法院可以对其采取或者通知有关单位协助采取限制出境,在征信系统记录、通过媒体公布不履行义务信息以及法律规定的其他措施。
第二十二章 执行中止和终结
第二百五十六条 执行中止
有下列情形之一的,人民法院应当裁定中止执行: (一)申请人表示可以延期执行的; (二)案外人对执行标的提出确有理由的异议的; (三)作为一方当事人的公民死亡,需要等待继承人继承权利或者承担义务的; (四)作为一方当事人的法人或者其他组织终止,尚未确定权利义务承受人的; (五)人民法院认为应当中止执行的其他情形。 中止的情形消失后,恢复执行。
第二百五十七条 执行终结
有下列情形之一的,人民法院裁定终结执行: (一)申请人撤销申请的; (二)据以执行的法律文书被撤销的; (三)作为被执行人的公民死亡,无遗产可供执行,又无义务承担人的; (四)追索赡养费、扶养费、抚育费案件的权利人死亡的; (五)作为被执行人的公民因生活困难无力偿还借款,无收入来源,又丧失劳动能力的; (六)人民法院认为应当终结执行的其他情形。
第二百五十八条 中止和终结裁定的生效
中止和终结执行的裁定,送达当事人后立即生效。
第四编 涉外民事诉讼程序的特别规定
第二十三章 一般原则
第二百五十九条 适用法院地法原则
在中华人民共和国领域内进行涉外民事诉讼,适用本编规定。本编没有规定的,适用本法其他有关规定。
第二百六十条 国际条约优先适用原则
中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约同本法有不同规定的,适用该国际条约的规定,但中华人民共和国声明保留的条款除外。
第二百六十一条 外交特权与豁免
对享有外交特权与豁免的外国人、外国组织或者国际组织提起的民事诉讼,应当依照中华人民共和国有关法律和中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约的规定办理。
第二百六十二条 语言文字
人民法院审理涉外民事案件,应当使用中华人民共和国通用的语言、文字。当事人要求提供翻译的,可以提供,费用由当事人承担。
第二百六十三条 中国律师代理
外国人、无国籍人、外国企业和组织在人民法院起诉、应诉,需要委托律师代理诉讼的,必须委托中华人民共和国的律师。
第二百六十四条 公证和认证
在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的外国人、无国籍人、外国企业和组织委托中华人民共和国律师或者其他人代理诉讼,从中华人民共和国领域外寄交或者托交的授权委托书,应当经所在国公证机关证明,并经中华人民共和国驻该国使领馆认证,或者履行中华人民共和国与该所在国订立的有关条约中规定的证明手续后,才具有效力。
第二十四章 管  辖
第二百六十五条 特殊地域管辖
因合同纠纷或者其他财产权益纠纷,对在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的被告提起的诉讼,如果合同在中华人民共和国领域内签订或者履行,或者诉讼标的物在中华人民共和国领域内,或者被告在中华人民共和国领域内有可供扣押的财产,或者被告在中华人民共和国领域内设有代表机构,可以由合同签订地、合同履行地、诉讼标的物所在地、可供扣押财产所在地、侵权行为地或者代表机构住所地人民法院管辖。
第二百六十六条 专属管辖
因在中华人民共和国履行中外合资经营企业合同、中外合作经营企业合同、中外合作勘探开发自然资源合同发生纠纷提起的诉讼,由中华人民共和国人民法院管辖。
第二十五章 送达、期间
第二百六十七条 送达方式
人民法院对在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的当事人送达诉讼文书,可以采用下列方式: (一)依照受送达人所在国与中华人民共和国缔结或者共同参加的国际条约中规定的方式送达; (二)通过外交途径送达; (三)对具有中华人民共和国国籍的受送达人,可以委托中华人民共和国驻受送达人所在国的使领馆代为送达; (四)向受送达人委托的有权代其接受送达的诉讼代理人送达; (五)向受送达人在中华人民共和国领域内设立的代表机构或者有权接受送达的分支机构、业务代办人送达; (六)受送达人所在国的法律允许邮寄送达的,可以邮寄送达,自邮寄之日起满三个月,送达回证没有退回,但根据各种情况足以认定已经送达的,期间届满之日视为送达; (七)采用传真、电子邮件等能够确认受送达人收悉的方式送达; (八)不能用上述方式送达的,公告送达,自公告之日起满三个月,即视为送达。
第二百六十八条 答辩期间
被告在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的,人民法院应当将起诉状副本送达被告,并通知被告在收到起诉状副本后三十日内提出答辩状。被告申请延期的,是否准许,由人民法院决定。
第二百六十九条 上诉期间
在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的当事人,不服第一审人民法院判决、裁定的,有权在判决书、裁定书送达之日起三十日内提起上诉。被上诉人在收到上诉状副本后,应当在三十日内提出答辩状。当事人不能在法定期间提起上诉或者提出答辩状,申请延期的,是否准许,由人民法院决定。
第二百七十条 审理期间不受限制
人民法院审理涉外民事案件的期间,不受本法第一百四十九条、第一百七十六条规定的限制。
第二十六章 仲  裁
第二百七十一条 仲裁协议
涉外经济贸易、运输和海事中发生的纠纷,当事人在合同中订有仲裁条款或者事后达成书面仲裁协议,提交中华人民共和国涉外仲裁机构或者其他仲裁机构仲裁的,当事人不得向人民法院起诉。 当事人在合同中没有订有仲裁条款或者事后没有达成书面仲裁协议的,可以向人民法院起诉。
第二百七十二条 财产保全
当事人申请采取保全的,中华人民共和国的涉外仲裁机构应当将当事人的申请,提交被申请人住所地或者财产所在地的中级人民法院裁定。
第二百七十三条 仲裁裁决执行
经中华人民共和国涉外仲裁机构裁决的,当事人不得向人民法院起诉。一方当事人不履行仲裁裁决的,对方当事人可以向被申请人住所地或者财产所在地的中级人民法院申请执行。
第二百七十四条 不予执行情形
对中华人民共和国涉外仲裁机构作出的裁决,被申请人提出证据证明仲裁裁决有下列情形之一的,经人民法院组成合议庭审查核实,裁定不予执行: (一)当事人在合同中没有订有仲裁条款或者事后没有达成书面仲裁协议的; (二)被申请人没有得到指定仲裁员或者进行仲裁程序的通知,或者由于其他不属于被申请人负责的原因未能陈述意见的; (三)仲裁庭的组成或者仲裁的程序与仲裁规则不符的; (四)裁决的事项不属于仲裁协议的范围或者仲裁机构无权仲裁的。 人民法院认定执行该裁决违背社会公共利益的,裁定不予执行。
第二百七十五条 不予执行后果
仲裁裁决被人民法院裁定不予执行的,当事人可以根据双方达成的书面仲裁协议重新申请仲裁,也可以向人民法院起诉。
第二十七章 司法协助
第二百七十六条 国际民事司法协助的内容和原则
根据中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约,或者按照互惠原则,人民法院和外国法院可以相互请求,代为送达文书、调查取证以及进行其他诉讼行为。 外国法院请求协助的事项有损于中华人民共和国的主权、安全或者社会公共利益的,人民法院不予执行。
第二百七十七条 协助途径
请求和提供司法协助,应当依照中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约所规定的途径进行;没有条约关系的,通过外交途径进行。 外国驻中华人民共和国的使领馆可以向该国公民送达文书和调查取证,但不得违反中华人民共和国的法律,并不得采取强制措施。 除前款规定的情况外,未经中华人民共和国主管机关准许,任何外国机关或者个人不得在中华人民共和国领域内送达文书、调查取证。
第二百七十八条 文字要求
外国法院请求人民法院提供司法协助的请求书及其所附文件,应当附有中文译本或者国际条约规定的其他文字文本。 人民法院请求外国法院提供司法协助的请求书及其所附文件,应当附有该国文字译本或者国际条约规定的其他文字文本。
第二百七十九条 协助程序
人民法院提供司法协助,依照中华人民共和国法律规定的程序进行。外国法院请求采用特殊方式的,也可以按照其请求的特殊方式进行,但请求采用的特殊方式不得违反中华人民共和国法律。
第二百八十条 申请外国承认执行
人民法院作出的发生法律效力的判决、裁定,如果被执行人或者其财产不在中华人民共和国领域内,当事人请求执行的,可以由当事人直接向有管辖权的外国法院申请承认和执行,也可以由人民法院依照中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约的规定,或者按照互惠原则,请求外国法院承认和执行。 中华人民共和国涉外仲裁机构作出的发生法律效力的仲裁裁决,当事人请求执行的,如果被执行人或者其财产不在中华人民共和国领域内,应当由当事人直接向有管辖权的外国法院申请承认和执行。
第二百八十一条 外国申请承认执行
外国法院作出的发生法律效力的判决、裁定,需要中华人民共和国人民法院承认和执行的,可以由当事人直接向中华人民共和国有管辖权的中级人民法院申请承认和执行,也可以由外国法院依照该国与中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约的规定,或者按照互惠原则,请求人民法院承认和执行。
第二百八十二条 承认和执行外国法院裁判
人民法院对申请或者请求承认和执行的外国法院作出的发生法律效力的判决、裁定,依照中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约,或者按照互惠原则进行审查后,认为不违反中华人民共和国法律的基本原则或者国家主权、安全、社会公共利益的,裁定承认其效力,需要执行的,发出执行令,依照本法的有关规定执行。违反中华人民共和国法律的基本原则或者国家主权、安全、社会公共利益的,不予承认和执行。
第二百八十三条 承认和执行国外仲裁裁决
国外仲裁机构的裁决,需要中华人民共和国人民法院承认和执行的,应当由当事人直接向被执行人住所地或者其财产所在地的中级人民法院申请,人民法院应当依照中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约,或者按照互惠原则办理。
第二百八十四条 施行日期
本法自公布之日起施行,《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法(试行)》同时废止。


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Contract Law of the People's Republic of China Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800
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Contract Law of the People's Republic of China

中华人民共和国主席令

(第十五号)

《中华人民共和国合同法》已由中华人民共和国第九届全国人民代表大会第二次会议于1999年3月15日通过,现予公布,自1999年10月1日起施行。

中华人民共和国主席 江泽民

1999年3月15日

中华人民共和国合同法

(1999年3月15日第九届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过)

第一章 一般规定

第一条 【立法目的】为了保护合同当事人的合法权益,维护社会经济秩序,促进社会主义现代化建设,制定本法。

第二条 【合同定义】本法所称合同是平等主体的自然人、法人、其他组织之间设立、变更、终止民事权利义务关系的协议。

婚姻、收养、监护等有关身份关系的协议,适用其他法律的规定。

第三条 【平等原则】合同当事人的法律地位平等,一方不得将自己的意志强加给另一方。

第四条 【合同自由原则】当事人依法享有自愿订立合同的权利,任何单位和个人不得非法干预。

第五条 【公平原则】当事人应当遵循公平原则确定各方的权利和义务。

第六条 【诚实信用原则】当事人行使权利、履行义务应当遵循诚实信用原则。

第七条 【遵纪守法原则】当事人订立、履行合同,应当遵守法律、行政法规,尊重社会公德,不得扰乱社会经济秩序,损害社会公共利益。

第八条 【依合同履行义务原则】依法成立的合同,对当事人具有法律约束力。当事人应当按照约定履行自己的义务,不得擅自变更或者解除合同。

依法成立的合同,受法律保护。

第二章 合同的订立

第九条 【订立合同的能力】当事人订立合同,应当具有相应的民事权利能力和民事行为能力。

当事人依法可以委托代理人订立合同。

第十条 【合同的形式】当事人订立合同,有书面形式、口头形式和其他形式。

法律、行政法规规定采用书面形式的,应当采用书面形式。当事人约定采用书面形式的,应当采用书面形式。

第十一条 【书面形式】书面形式是指合同书、信件和数据电文(包括电报、电传、传真、电子数据交换和电子邮件)等可以有形地表现所载内容的形式。

第十二条 【合同内容】合同的内容由当事人约定,一般包括以下条款:

(一)当事人的名称或者姓名和住所;

(二)标的;

(三)数量;

(四)质量;

(五)价款或者报酬;

(六)履行期限、地点和方式;

(七)违约责任;

(八)解决争议的方法。

当事人可以参照各类合同的示范文本订立合同。

第十三条 【订立合同方式】当事人订立合同,采取要约、承诺方式。

第十四条 【要约】要约是希望和他人订立合同的意思表示,该意思表示应当符合下列规定:

(一)内容具体确定;

(二)表明经受要约人承诺,要约人即受该意思表示约束。

第十五条 【要约邀请】要约邀请是希望他人向自己发出要约的意思表示。寄送的价目表、拍卖公告、招标公告、招股说明书、商业广告等为要约邀请。

商业广告的内容符合要约规定的,视为要约。

第十六条 【要约的生效】要约到达受要约人时生效。

采用数据电文形式订立合同,收件人指定特定系统接收数据电文的,该数据电文进入该特定系统的时间,视为到达时间;未指定特定系统的,该数据电文进入收件人的任何系统的首次时间,视为到达时间。

第十七条 【要约的撤回】要约可以撤回。撤回要约的通知应当在要约到达受要约人之前或者与要约同时到达受要约人。

第十八条 【要约的撤销】要约可以撤销。撤销要约的通知应当在受要约人发出承诺通知之前到达受要约人。

第十九条 【要约不得撤销的情形】有下列情形之一的,要约不得撤销:

(一)要约人确定了承诺期限或者以其他形式明示要约不可撤销;

(二)受要约人有理由认为要约是不可撤销的,并已经为履行合同作了准备工作。

第二十条 【要约的失效】有下列情形之一的,要约失效:

(一)拒绝要约的通知到达要约人;

(二)要约人依法撤销要约;

(三)承诺期限届满,受要约人未作出承诺;

(四)受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更。

第二十一条 【承诺的定义】承诺是受要约人同意要约的意思表示。

第二十二条 【承诺的方式】承诺应当以通知的方式作出,但根据交易习惯或者要约表明可以通过行为作出承诺的除外。

第二十三条 【承诺的期限】承诺应当在要约确定的期限内到达要约人。

要约没有确定承诺期限的,承诺应当依照下列规定到达:

(一)要约以对话方式作出的,应当即时作出承诺,但当事人另有约定的除外;

(二)要约以非对话方式作出的,承诺应当在合理期限内到达。

第二十四条 【承诺期限的起点】要约以信件或者电报作出的,承诺期限自信件载明的日期或者电报交发之日开始计算。信件未载明日期的,自投寄该信件的邮戳日期开始计算。要约以电话、传真等快速通讯方式作出的,承诺期限自要约到达受要约人时开始计算。

第二十五条 【合同成立时间】承诺生效时合同成立。

第二十六条 【承诺的生效】承诺通知到达要约人时生效。承诺不需要通知的,根据交易习惯或者要约的要求作出承诺的行为时生效。

采用数据电文形式订立合同的,承诺到达的时间适用本法第十六条第二款的规定。

第二十七条 【承诺的撤回】承诺可以撤回。撤回承诺的通知应当在承诺通知到达要约人之前或者与承诺通知同时到达要约人。

第二十八条 【新要约】受要约人超过承诺期限发出承诺的,除要约人及时通知受要约人该承诺有效的以外,为新要约。

第二十九条 【迟到的承诺】受要约人在承诺期限内发出承诺,按照通常情形能够及时到达要约人,但因其他原因承诺到达要约人时超过承诺期限的,除要约人及时通知受要约人因承诺超过期限不接受该承诺的以外,该承诺有效。

第三十条 【承诺的变更】承诺的内容应当与要约的内容一致。受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更的,为新要约。有关合同标的、数量、质量、价款或者报酬、履行期限、履行地点和方式、违约责任和解决争议方法等的变更,是对要约内容的实质性变更。

第三十一条 【承诺的内容】承诺对要约的内容作出非实质性变更的,除要约人及时表示反对或者要约表明承诺不得对要约的内容作出任何变更的以外,该承诺有效,合同的内容以承诺的内容为准。

第三十二条 【合同成立时间】当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,自双方当事人签字或者盖章时合同成立。

第三十三条 【确认书与合同成立】当事人采用信件、数据电文等形式订立合同的,可以在合同成立之前要求签订确认书。签订确认书时合同成立。

第三十四条 【合同成立地点】承诺生效的地点为合同成立的地点。

采用数据电文形式订立合同的,收件人的主营业地为合同成立的地点;没有主营业地的,其经常居住地为合同成立的地点。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。

第三十五条 【书面合同成立地点】当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,双方当事人签字或者盖章的地点为合同成立的地点。

第三十六条 【书面合同与合同成立】法律、行政法规规定或者当事人约定采用书面形式订立合同,当事人未采用书面形式但一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受的,该合同成立。

第三十七条 【合同书与合同成立】采用合同书形式订立合同,在签字或者盖章之前,当事人一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受的,该合同成立。

第三十八条 【依国家计划订立合同】国家根据需要下达指令性任务或者国家订货任务的,有关法人、其他组织之间应当依照有关法律、行政法规规定的权利和义务订立合同。

第三十九条 【格式合同条款定义及使用人义务】采用格式条款订立合同的,提供格式条款的一方应当遵循公平原则确定当事人之间的权利和义务,并采取合理的方式提请对方注意免除或者限制其责任的条款,按照对方的要求,对该条款予以说明。

格式条款是当事人为了重复使用而预先拟定,并在订立合同时未与对方协商的条款。

第四十条 【格式合同条款的无效】格式条款具有本法第五十二条和第五十三条规定情形的,或者提供格式条款一方免除其责任、加重对方责任、排除对方主要权利的,该条款无效。

第四十一条 【格式合同的解释】对格式条款的理解发生争议的,应当按照通常理解予以解释。对格式条款有两种以上解释的,应当作出不利于提供格式条款一方的解释。格式条款和非格式条款不一致的,应当采用非格式条款。

第四十二条 【缔约过失】当事人在订立合同过程中有下列情形之一,给对方造成损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任:

(一)假借订立合同,恶意进行磋商;

(二)故意隐瞒与订立合同有关的重要事实或者提供虚假情况;

(三)有其他违背诚实信用原则的行为。

第四十三条 【保密义务】当事人在订立合同过程中知悉的商业秘密,无论合同是否成立,不得泄露或者不正当地使用。泄露或者不正当地使用该商业秘密给对方造成损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第三章 合同的效力

第四十四条 【合同的生效】依法成立的合同,自成立时生效。

法律、行政法规规定应当办理批准、登记等手续生效的,依照其规定。

第四十五条 【附条件的合同】当事人对合同的效力可以约定附条件。附生效条件的合同,自条件成就时生效。附解除条件的合同,自条件成就时失效。

当事人为自己的利益不正当地阻止条件成就的,视为条件已成就;不正当地促成条件成就的,视为条件不成就。

第四十六条 【附期限的合同】当事人对合同的效力可以约定附期限。附生效期限的合同,自期限届至时生效。附终止期限的合同,自期限届满时失效。

第四十七条 【限制行为能力人订立的合同】限制民事行为能力人订立的合同,经法定代理人追认后,该合同有效,但纯获利益的合同或者与其年龄、智力、精神健康状况相适应而订立的合同,不必经法定代理人追认。

相对人可以催告法定代理人在一个月内予以追认。法定代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。合同被追认之前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当以通知的方式作出。

第四十八条 【无权代理人订立的合同】行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后以被代理人名义订立的合同,未经被代理人追认,对被代理人不发生效力,由行为人承担责任。

相对人可以催告被代理人在一个月内予以追认。被代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。合同被追认之前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当以通知的方式作出。

第四十九条 【表见代理】行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后以被代理人名义订立合同,相对人有理由相信行为人有代理权的,该代理行为有效。

第五十条 【法定代表人越权行为】法人或者其他组织的法定代表人、负责人超越权限订立的合同,除相对人知道或者应当知道其超越权限的以外,该代表行为有效。

第五十一条 【无处分权人订立的合同】无处分权的人处分他人财产,经权利人追认或者无处分权的人订立合同后取得处分权的,该合同有效。

第五十二条 【合同无效的法定情形】有下列情形之一的,合同无效:

(一)一方以欺诈、胁迫的手段订立合同,损害国家利益;

(二)恶意串通,损害国家、集体或者第三人利益;

(三)以合法形式掩盖非法目的;

(四)损害社会公共利益;

(五)违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定。

第五十三条 【合同免责条款的无效】合同中的下列免责条款无效:

(一)造成对方人身伤害的;

(二)因故意或者重大过失造成对方财产损失的。

第五十四条 【可撤销合同】下列合同,当事人一方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构变更或者撤销:

(一)因重大误解订立的;

(二)在订立合同时显失公平的。

一方以欺诈、胁迫的手段或者乘人之危,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下订立的合同,受损害方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构变更或者撤销。

当事人请求变更的,人民法院或者仲裁机构不得撤销。

第五十五条 【撤销权的消灭】有下列情形之一的,撤销权消灭:

(一)具有撤销权的当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内没有行使撤销权;

(二)具有撤销权的当事人知道撤销事由后明确表示或者以自己的行为放弃撤销权。

第五十六条 【合同自始无效与部分有效】无效的合同或者被撤销的合同自始没有法律约束力。合同部分无效,不影响其他部分效力的,其他部分仍然有效。

第五十七条 【合同解决争议条款的效力】合同无效、被撤销或者终止的,不影响合同中独立存在的有关解决争议方法的条款的效力。

第五十八条 【合同无效或被撤销的法律后果】合同无效或者被撤销后,因该合同取得的财产,应当予以返还;不能返还或者没有必要返还的,应当折价补偿。有过错的一方应当赔偿对方因此所受到的损失,双方都有过错的,应当各自承担相应的责任。

第五十九条 【恶意串通获取财产的返还】当事人恶意串通,损害国家、集体或者第三人利益的,因此取得的财产收归国家所有或者返还集体、第三人。

第四章 合同的履行

第六十条 【严格履行与诚实信用】当事人应当按照约定全面履行自己的义务。

当事人应当遵循诚实信用原则,根据合同的性质、目的和交易习惯履行通知、协助、保密等义务。

第六十一条 【合同约定不明的补救】合同生效后,当事人就质量、价款或者报酬、履行地点等内容没有约定或者约定不明确的,可以协议补充;不能达成补充协议的,按照合同有关条款或者交易习惯确定。

第六十二条 【合同约定不明时的履行】当事人就有关合同内容约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,适用下列规定:

(一)质量要求不明确的,按照国家标准、行业标准履行;没有国家标准、行业标准的,按照通常标准或者符合合同目的的特定标准履行。

(二)价款或者报酬不明确的,按照订立合同时履行地的市场价格履行;依法应当执行政府定价或者政府指导价的,按照规定履行。

(三)履行地点不明确,给付货币的,在接受货币一方所在地履行;交付不动产的,在不动产所在地履行;其他标的,在履行义务一方所在地履行。

(四)履行期限不明确的,债务人可以随时履行,债权人也可以随时要求履行,但应当给对方必要的准备时间。

(五)履行方式不明确的,按照有利于实现合同目的的方式履行。

(六)履行费用的负担不明确的,由履行义务一方负担。

第六十三条 【交付期限与价格执行】执行政府定价或者政府指导价的,在合同约定的交付期限内政府价格调整时,按照交付时的价格计价。逾期交付标的物的,遇价格上涨时,按照原价格执行;价格下降时,按照新价格执行。逾期提取标的物或者逾期付款的,遇价格上涨时,按照新价格执行;价格下降时,按照原价格执行。

第六十四条 【向第三人履行合同】当事人约定由债务人向第三人履行债务的,债务人未向第三人履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定,应当向债权人承担违约责任。

第六十五条 【第三人不履行合同的责任承担】当事人约定由第三人向债权人履行债务,第三人不履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定,债务人应当向债权人承担违约责任。

第六十六条 【同时履行抗辩权】当事人互负债务,没有先后履行顺序的,应当同时履行。一方在对方履行之前有权拒绝其履行要求。一方在对方履行债务不符合约定时,有权拒绝其相应的履行要求。

第六十七条 【先履行义务】当事人互负债务,有先后履行顺序,先履行一方未履行的,后履行一方有权拒绝其履行要求。先履行一方履行债务不符合约定的,后履行一方有权拒绝其相应的履行要求。

第六十八条 【不安抗辩权】应当先履行债务的当事人,有确切证据证明对方有下列情形之一的,可以中止履行:

(一)经营状况严重恶化;

(二)转移财产、抽逃资金,以逃避债务;

(三)丧失商业信誉;

(四)有丧失或者可能丧失履行债务能力的其他情形。

当事人没有确切证据中止履行的,应当承担违约责任。

第六十九条 【不安抗辩权的行使】当事人依照本法第六十八条的规定中止履行的,应当及时通知对方。对方提供适当担保时,应当恢复履行。中止履行后,对方在合理期限内未恢复履行能力并且未提供适当担保的,中止履行的一方可以解除合同。

第七十条 【因债权人原因致债务履行困难的处理】债权人分立、合并或者变更住所没有通知债务人,致使履行债务发生困难的,债务人可以中止履行或者将标的物提存。

第七十一条 【债务的提前履行】债权人可以拒绝债务人提前履行债务,但提前履行不损害债权人利益的除外。

债务人提前履行债务给债权人增加的费用,由债务人负担。

第七十二条 【债务的部分履行】债权人可以拒绝债务人部分履行债务,但部分履行不损害债权人利益的除外。

债务人部分履行债务给债权人增加的费用,由债务人负担。

第七十三条 【债权人的代位权】因债务人怠于行使其到期债权,对债权人造成损害的,债权人可以向人民法院请求以自己的名义代位行使债务人的债权,但该债权专属于债务人自身的除外。

代位权的行使范围以债权人的债权为限。债权人行使代位权的必要费用,由债务人负担。

第七十四条 【债权人的撤销权】因债务人放弃其到期债权或者无偿转让财产,对债权人造成损害的,债权人可以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。债务人以明显不合理的低价转让财产,对债权人造成损害,并且受让人知道该情形的,债权人也可以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。

撤销权的行使范围以债权人的债权为限。债权人行使撤销权的必要费用,由债务人负担。

第七十五条 【撤销权的期间】撤销权自债权人知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内行使。自债务人的行为发生之日起五年内没有行使撤销权的,该撤销权消灭。

第七十六条 【当事人变化对合同履行的影响】合同生效后,当事人不得因姓名、名称的变更或者法定代表人、负责人、承办人的变动而不履行合同义务。

第五章 合同的变更和转让

第七十七条 【合同变更条件】当事人协商一致,可以变更合同。

法律、行政法规规定变更合同应当办理批准、登记等手续的,依照其规定。

第七十八条 【合同变更内容不明的处理】当事人对合同变更的内容约定不明确的,推定为未变更。

第七十九条 【债权的转让】债权人可以将合同的权利全部或者部分转让给第三人,但有下列情形之一的除外:

(一)根据合同性质不得转让;

(二)按照当事人约定不得转让;

(三)依照法律规定不得转让。

第八十条 【债权转让的通知义务】债权人转让权利的,应当通知债务人。未经通知,该转让对债务人不发生效力。

债权人转让权利的通知不得撤销,但经受让人同意的除外。

第八十一条 【从权利的转移】债权人转让权利的,受让人取得与债权有关的从权利,但该从权利专属于债权人自身的除外。

第八十二条 【债务人的抗辩权】债务人接到债权转让通知后,债务人对让与人的抗辩,可以向受让人主张。

第八十三条 【债务人的抵销权】债务人接到债权转让通知时,债务人对让与人享有债权,并且债务人的债权先于转让的债权到期或者同时到期的,债务人可以向受让人主张抵销。

第八十四条 【债权人同意】债务人将合同的义务全部或者部分转移给第三人的,应当经债权人同意。

第八十五条 【承担人的抗辩】债务人转移义务的,新债务人可以主张原债务人对债权人的抗辩。

第八十六条 【从债的转移】债务人转移义务的,新债务人应当承担与主债务有关的从债务,但该从债务专属于原债务人自身的除外。

第八十七条 【合同转让形式要件】法律、行政法规规定转让权利或者转移义务应当办理批准、登记等手续的,依照其规定。

第八十八条 【概括转让】当事人一方经对方同意,可以将自己在合同中的权利和义务一并转让给第三人。

第八十九条 【概括转让的效力】权利和义务一并转让的,适用本法第七十九条、第八十一条至第八十三条、第八十五条至第八十七条的规定。

第九十条 【新当事人的概括承受】当事人订立合同后合并的,由合并后的法人或者其他组织行使合同权利,履行合同义务。当事人订立合同后分立的,除债权人和债务人另有约定的以外,由分立的法人或者其他组织对合同的权利和义务享有连带债权,承担连带债务。

第六章 合同的权利义务终止

第九十一条 【合同消灭的原因】有下列情形之一的,合同的权利义务终止:

(一)债务已经按照约定履行;

(二)合同解除;

(三)债务相互抵销;

(四)债务人依法将标的物提存;

(五)债权人免除债务;

(六)债权债务同归于一人;

(七)法律规定或者当事人约定终止的其他情形。

第九十二条 【合同终止后的义务】合同的权利义务终止后,当事人应当遵循诚实信用原则,根据交易习惯履行通知、协助、保密等义务。

第九十三条 【合同约定解除】当事人协商一致,可以解除合同。

当事人可以约定一方解除合同的条件。解除合同的条件成就时,解除权人可以解除合同。

第九十四条 【合同的法定解除】有下列情形之一的,当事人可以解除合同:

(一)因不可抗力致使不能实现合同目的;

(二)在履行期限届满之前,当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行主要债务;

(三)当事人一方迟延履行主要债务,经催告后在合理期限内仍未履行;

(四)当事人一方迟延履行债务或者有其他违约行为致使不能实现合同目的;

(五)法律规定的其他情形。

第九十五条 【解除权消灭】法律规定或者当事人约定解除权行使期限,期限届满当事人不行使的,该权利消灭。

法律没有规定或者当事人没有约定解除权行使期限,经对方催告后在合理期限内不行使的,该权利消灭。

第九十六条 【解除权的行使】当事人一方依照本法第九十三条第二款、第九十四条的规定主张解除合同的,应当通知对方。合同自通知到达对方时解除。对方有异议的,可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构确认解除合同的效力。

法律、行政法规规定解除合同应当办理批准、登记等手续的,依照其规定。

第九十七条 【解除的效力】合同解除后,尚未履行的,终止履行;已经履行的,根据履行情况和合同性质,当事人可以要求恢复原状、采取其他补救措施,并有权要求赔偿损失。

第九十八条 【结算、清理条款效力】合同的权利义务终止,不影响合同中结算和清理条款的效力。

第九十九条 【债务的抵销及行使】当事人互负到期债务,该债务的标的物种类、品质相同的,任何一方可以将自己的债务与对方的债务抵销,但依照法律规定或者按照合同性质不得抵销的除外。

当事人主张抵销的,应当通知对方。通知自到达对方时生效。抵销不得附条件或者附期限。

第一百条 【债务的约定抵销】当事人互负债务,标的物种类、品质不相同的,经双方协商一致,也可以抵销。

第一百零一条 【提存的要件】有下列情形之一,难以履行债务的,债务人可以将标的物提存:

(一)债权人无正当理由拒绝受领;

(二)债权人下落不明;

(三)债权人死亡未确定继承人或者丧失民事行为能力未确定监护人;

(四)法律规定的其他情形。

标的物不适于提存或者提存费用过高的,债务人依法可以拍卖或者变卖标的物,提存所得的价款。

第一百零二条 【提存后的通知】标的物提存后,除债权人下落不明的以外,债务人应当及时通知债权人或者债权人的继承人、监护人。

第一百零三条 【提存的效力】标的物提存后,毁损、灭失的风险由债权人承担。提存期间,标的物的孳息归债权人所有。提存费用由债权人负担。

第一百零四条 【提存物的受领及受领权消灭】债权人可以随时领取提存物,但债权人对债务人负有到期债务的,在债权人未履行债务或者提供担保之前,提存部门根据债务人的要求应当拒绝其领取提存物。

债权人领取提存物的权利,自提存之日起五年内不行使而消灭,提存物扣除提存费用后归国家所有。

第一百零五条 【免除的效力】债权人免除债务人部分或者全部债务的,合同的权利义务部分或者全部终止。

第一百零六条 【混同的效力】债权和债务同归于一人的,合同的权利义务终止,但涉及第三人利益的除外。

第七章 违约责任

第一百零七条 【违约责任】当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,应当承担继续履行、采取补救措施或者赔偿损失等违约责任。

第一百零八条 【拒绝履行】当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行合同义务的,对方可以在履行期限届满之前要求其承担违约责任。

第一百零九条 【金钱债务的违约责任】当事人一方未支付价款或者报酬的,对方可以要求其支付价款或者报酬。

第一百一十条 【非金钱债务的违约责任】当事人一方不履行非金钱债务或者履行非金钱债务不符合约定的,对方可以要求履行,但有下列情形之一的除外:

(一)法律上或者事实上不能履行;

(二)债务的标的不适于强制履行或者履行费用过高;

(三)债权人在合理期限内未要求履行。

第一百一十一条 【瑕疵履行】质量不符合约定的,应当按照当事人的约定承担违约责任。对违约责任没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,受损害方根据标的的性质以及损失的大小,可以合理选择要求对方承担修理、更换、重作、退货、减少价款或者报酬等违约责任。

第一百一十二条 【履行、补救措施后的损失赔偿】当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,在履行义务或者采取补救措施后,对方还有其他损失的,应当赔偿损失。

第一百一十三条 【损害赔偿的范围】当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定,给对方造成损失的,损失赔偿额应当相当于因违约所造成的损失,包括合同履行后可以获得的利益,但不得超过违反合同一方订立合同时预见到或者应当预见到的因违反合同可能造成的损失。

经营者对消费者提供商品或者服务有欺诈行为的,依照《中华人民共和国消费者权益保护法》的规定承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百一十四条 【违约金】当事人可以约定一方违约时应当根据违约情况向对方支付一定数额的违约金,也可以约定因违约产生的损失赔偿额的计算方法。

约定的违约金低于造成的损失的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以增加;约定的违约金过分高于造成的损失的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以适当减少。

当事人就迟延履行约定违约金的,违约方支付违约金后,还应当履行债务。

第一百一十五条 【定金】当事人可以依照《中华人民共和国担保法》约定一方向对方给付定金作为债权的担保。债务人履行债务后,定金应当抵作价款或者收回。给付定金的一方不履行约定的债务的,无权要求返还定金;收受定金的一方不履行约定的债务的,应当双倍返还定金。

第一百一十六条 【违约金与定金的选择】当事人既约定违约金,又约定定金的,一方违约时,对方可以选择适用违约金或者定金条款。

第一百一十七条 【不可抗力】因不可抗力不能履行合同的,根据不可抗力的影响,部分或者全部免除责任,但法律另有规定的除外。当事人迟延履行后发生不可抗力的,不能免除责任。

本法所称不可抗力,是指不能预见、不能避免并不能克服的客观情况。

第一百一十八条 【不可抗力的通知与证明】当事人一方因不可抗力不能履行合同的,应当及时通知对方,以减轻可能给对方造成的损失,并应当在合理期限内提供证明。

第一百一十九条 【减损规则】当事人一方违约后,对方应当采取适当措施防止损失的扩大;没有采取适当措施致使损失扩大的,不得就扩大的损失要求赔偿。

当事人因防止损失扩大而支出的合理费用,由违约方承担。

第一百二十条 【双方违约的责任】当事人双方都违反合同的,应当各自承担相应的责任。

第一百二十一条 【因第三人的过错造成的违约】当事人一方因第三人的原因造成违约的,应当向对方承担违约责任。当事人一方和第三人之间的纠纷,依照法律规定或者按照约定解决。

第一百二十二条 【责任竞合】因当事人一方的违约行为,侵害对方人身、财产权益的,受损害方有权选择依照本法要求其承担违约责任或者依照其他法律要求其承担侵权责任。

第八章 其他规定

第一百二十三条 【其他规定的适用】其他法律对合同另有规定的,依照其规定。

第一百二十四条 【无名合同】本法分则或者其他法律没有明文规定的合同,适用本法总则的规定,并可以参照本法分则或者其他法律最相类似的规定。

第一百二十五条 【合同解释】当事人对合同条款的理解有争议的,应当按照合同所使用的词句、合同的有关条款、合同的目的、交易习惯以及诚实信用原则,确定该条款的真实意思。

合同文本采用两种以上文字订立并约定具有同等效力的,对各文本使用的词句推定具有相同含义。各文本使用的词句不一致的,应当根据合同的目的予以解释。

第一百二十六条 【涉外合同】涉外合同的当事人可以选择处理合同争议所适用的法律,但法律另有规定的除外。涉外合同的当事人没有选择的,适用与合同有最密切联系的国家的法律。

在中华人民共和国境内履行的中外合资经营企业合同、中外合作经营企业合同、中外合作勘探开发自然资源合同,适用中华人民共和国法律。

第一百二十七条 【合同监督机关】工商行政管理部门和其他有关行政主管部门在各自的职权范围内,依照法律、行政法规的规定,对利用合同危害国家利益、社会公共利益的违法行为,负责监督处理;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

第一百二十八条 【合同争议的解决】当事人可以通过和解或者调解解决合同争议。

当事人不愿和解、调解或者和解、调解不成的,可以根据仲裁协议向仲裁机构申请仲裁。涉外合同的当事人可以根据仲裁协议向中国仲裁机构或者其他仲裁机构申请仲裁。当事人没有订立仲裁协议或者仲裁协议无效的,可以向人民法院起诉。当事人应当履行发生法律效力的判决、仲裁裁决、调解书;拒不履行的,对方可以请求人民法院执行。

第一百二十九条 【特殊时效】因国际货物买卖合同和技术进出口合同争议提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的期限为四年,自当事人知道或者应当知道其权利受到侵害之日起计算。因其他合同争议提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的期限,依照有关法律的规定。

分则

第九章 买卖合同

第一百三十条 【定义】买卖合同是出卖人转移标的物的所有权于买受人,买受人支付价款的合同。

第一百三十一条 【买卖合同的内容】买卖合同的内容除依照本法第十二条的规定以外,还可以包括包装方式、检验标准和方法、结算方式、合同使用的文字及其效力等条款。

第一百三十二条 【标的物】出卖的标的物,应当属于出卖人所有或者出卖人有权处分。

法律、行政法规禁止或者限制转让的标的物,依照其规定。

第一百三十三条 【标的物所有权转移时间】标的物的所有权自标的物交付时起转移,但法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

第一百三十四条 【标的物所有权转移的约定】当事人可以在买卖合同中约定买受人未履行支付价款或者其他义务的,标的物的所有权属于出卖人。

第一百三十五条 【出卖人的基本义务】出卖人应当履行向买受人交付标的物或者交付提取标的物的单证,并转移标的物所有权的义务。

第一百三十六条 【有关单证和资料的交付】出卖人应当按照约定或者交易习惯向买受人交付提取标的物单证以外的有关单证和资料。

第一百三十七条 【知识产权归属】出卖具有知识产权的计算机软件等标的物的,除法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的以外,该标的物的知识产权不属于买受人。

第一百三十八条 【交付的时间】出卖人应当按照约定的期限交付标的物。约定交付期间的,出卖人可以在该交付期间内的任何时间交付。

第一百三十九条 【交付时间的推定】当事人没有约定标的物的交付期限或者约定不明确的,适用本法第六十一条、第六十二条第四项的规定。

第一百四十条 【占有标的物与交付时间】标的物在订立合同之前已为买受人占有的,合同生效的时间为交付时间。

第一百四十一条 【交付的地点】出卖人应当按照约定的地点交付标的物。

当事人没有约定交付地点或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,适用下列规定:

(一)标的物需要运输的,出卖人应当将标的物交付给第一承运人以运交给买受人;

(二)标的物不需要运输,出卖人和买受人订立合同时知道标的物在某一地点的,出卖人应当在该地点交付标的物;不知道标的物在某一地点的,应当在出卖人订立合同时的营业地交付标的物。

第一百四十二条 【标的物的风险负担】标的物毁损、灭失的风险,在标的物交付之前由出卖人承担,交付之后由买受人承担,但法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

第一百四十三条 【买受人违约交付的风险承担】因买受人的原因致使标的物不能按照约定的期限交付的,买受人应当自违反约定之日起承担标的物毁损、灭失的风险。

第一百四十四条 【在途标的物的风险承担】出卖人出卖交由承运人运输的在途标的物,除当事人另有约定的以外,毁损、灭失的风险自合同成立时起由买受人承担。

第一百四十五条 【标的物交付给第一承运人后的风险承担】当事人没有约定交付地点或者约定不明确,依照本法第一百四十一条第二款第一项的规定标的物需要运输的,出卖人将标的物交付给第一承运人后,标的物毁损、灭失的风险由买受人承担。

第一百四十六条 【买受人不履行接收标的物义务的风险承担】出卖人按照约定或者依照本法第一百四十一条第二款第二项的规定将标的物置于交付地点,买受人违反约定没有收取的,标的物毁损、灭失的风险自违反约定之日起由买受人承担。

第一百四十七条 【未交付单证、资料与风险承担】出卖人按照约定未交付有关标的物的单证和资料的,不影响标的物毁损、灭失风险的转移。

第一百四十八条 【标的物的瑕疵担保责任】因标的物质量不符合质量要求,致使不能实现合同目的的,买受人可以拒绝接受标的物或者解除合同。买受人拒绝接受标的物或者解除合同的,标的物毁损、灭失的风险由出卖人承担。

第一百四十九条 【风险承担不影响瑕疵担保】标的物毁损、灭失的风险由买受人承担的,不影响因出卖人履行债务不符合约定,买受人要求其承担违约责任的权利。

第一百五十条 【标的物权利瑕疵担保】出卖人就交付的标的物,负有保证第三人不得向买受人主张任何权利的义务,但法律另有规定的除外。

第一百五十一条 【权利瑕疵担保责任和免除】买受人订立合同时知道或者应当知道第三人对买卖的标的物享有权利的,出卖人不承担本法第一百五十条规定的义务。

第一百五十二条 【中止支付价款权】买受人有确切证据证明第三人可能就标的物主张权利的,可以中止支付相应的价款,但出卖人提供适当担保的除外。

第一百五十三条 【标的物的瑕疵担保】出卖人应当按照约定的质量要求交付标的物。出卖人提供有关标的物质量说明的,交付的标的物应当符合该说明的质量要求。

第一百五十四条 【法定质量担保】当事人对标的物的质量要求没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,适用本法第六十二条第一项的规定。

第一百五十五条 【承受人权利】出卖人交付的标的物不符合质量要求的,买受人可以依照本法第一百一十一条的规定要求承担违约责任。

第一百五十六条 【标的物包装方式】出卖人应当按照约定的包装方式交付标的物。对包装方式没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,应当按照通用的方式包装,没有通用方式的,应当采取足以保护标的物的包装方式。

第一百五十七条 【买受人的检验义务】买受人收到标的物时应当在约定的检验期间内检验。没有约定检验期间的,应当及时检验。

第一百五十八条 【买受人的通知义务及免除】当事人约定检验期间的,买受人应当在检验期间内将标的物的数量或者质量不符合约定的情形通知出卖人。买受人怠于通知的,视为标的物的数量或者质量符合约定。

当事人没有约定检验期间的,买受人应当在发现或者应当发现标的物的数量或者质量不符合约定的合理期间内通知出卖人。买受人在合理期间内未通知或者自标的物收到之日起两年内未通知出卖人的,视为标的物的数量或者质量符合约定,但对标的物有质量保证期的,适用质量保证期,不适用该两年的规定。

出卖人知道或者应当知道提供的标的物不符合约定的,买受人不受前两款规定的通知时间的限制。

第一百五十九条 【买受人的基本义务】买受人应当按照约定的数额支付价款。对价款没有约定或者约定不明确的,适用本法第六十一条、第六十二条第二项的规定。

第一百六十条 【支付价款的地点】买受人应当按照约定的地点支付价款。对支付地点没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,买受人应当在出卖人的营业地支付,但约定支付价款以交付标的物或者交付提取标的物单证为条件的,在交付标的物或者交付提取标的物单证的所在地支付。

第一百六十一条 【支付价款的时间】买受人应当按照约定的时间支付价款。对支付时间没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,买受人应当在收到标的物或者提取标的物单证的同时支付。

第一百六十二条 【多交标的物的处理】出卖人多交标的物的,买受人可以接收或者拒绝接收多交的部分。买受人接收多交部分的,按照合同的价格支付价款;买受人拒绝接收多交部分的,应当及时通知出卖人。

第一百六十三条 【标的物孳息的归属】标的物在交付之前产生的孳息,归出卖人所有,交付之后产生的孳息,归买受人所有。

第一百六十四条 【解除合同与主物的关系】因标的物的主物不符合约定而解除合同的,解除合同的效力及于从物。因标的物的从物不符合约定被解除的,解除的效力不及于主物。

第一百六十五条 【数物并存的合同解除】标的物为数物,其中一物不符合约定的,买受人可以就该物解除,但该物与他物分离使标的物的价值显受损害的,当事人可以就数物解除合同。

第一百六十六条 【分批交付标的物的合同解除】出卖人分批交付标的物的,出卖人对其中一批标的物不交付或者交付不符合约定,致使该批标的物不能实现合同目的的,买受人可以就该批标的物解除。

出卖人不交付其中一批标的物或者交付不符合约定,致使今后其他各批标的物的交付不能实现合同目的的,买受人可以就该批以及今后其他各批标的物解除。

买受人如果就其中一批标的物解除,该批标的物与其他各批标的物相互依存的,可以就已经交付和未交付的各批标的物解除。

第一百六十七条 【分期付款买卖中的合同解除】分期付款的买受人未支付到期价款的金额达到全部价款的五分之一的,出卖人可以要求买受人支付全部价款或者解除合同。

出卖人解除合同的,可以向买受人要求支付该标的物的使用费。

第一百六十八条 【样品买卖】凭样品买卖的当事人应当封存样品,并可以对样品质量予以说明。出卖人交付的标的物应当与样品及其说明的质量相同。

第一百六十九条 【样品买卖特殊责任】凭样品买卖的买受人不知道样品有隐蔽瑕疵的,即使交付的标的物与样品相同,出卖人交付的标的物的质量仍然应当符合同种物的通常标准。

第一百七十条 【试用买卖的试用期间】试用买卖的当事人可以约定标的物的试用期间。对试用期间没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,由出卖人确定。

第一百七十一条 【买受人对标的物的认可】试用买卖的买受人在试用期内可以购买标的物,也可以拒绝购买。试用期间届满,买受人对是否购买标的物未作表示的,视为购买。

第一百七十二条 【招标投标买卖】招标投标买卖的当事人的权利和义务以及招标投标程序等,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定。

第一百七十三条 【拍卖】拍卖的当事人的权利和义务以及拍卖程序等,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定。

第一百七十四条 【买卖合同准用于有偿合同】法律对其他有偿合同有规定的,依照其规定;没有规定的,参照买卖合同的有关规定。

第一百七十五条 【互易合同】当事人约定易货交易,转移标的物的所有权的,参照买卖合同的有关规定。

第十章 供用电、水、气、热力合同

第一百七十六条 【定义】供用电合同是供电人向用电人供电,用电人支付电费的合同。

第一百七十七条 【主要条款】供用电合同的内容包括供电的方式、质量、时间,用电容量、地址、性质,计量方式,电价、电费的结算方式,供用电设施的维护责任等条款。

第一百七十八条 【履行地】供用电合同的履行地点,按照当事人约定;当事人没有约定或者约定不明确的,供电设施的产权分界处为履行地点。

第一百七十九条 【安全供电义务及责任】供电人应当按照国家规定的供电质量标准和约定安全供电。供电人未按照国家规定的供电质量标准和约定安全供电,造成用电人损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百八十条 【中断供电的通知义务】供电人因供电设施计划检修、临时检修、依法限电或者用电人违法用电等原因,需要中断供电时,应当按照国家有关规定事先通知用电人。未事先通知用电人中断供电,造成用电人损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百八十一条 【不可抗力断电的抢修义务】因自然灾害等原因断电,供电人应当按照国家有关规定及时抢修。未及时抢修,造成用电人损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百八十二条 【用电人交付电费义务】用电人应当按照国家有关规定和当事人的约定及时交付电费。用电人逾期不交付电费的,应当按照约定支付违约金。经催告用电人在合理期限内仍不交付电费和违约金的,供电人可以按照国家规定的程序中止供电。

第一百八十三条 【安全用电义务】用电人应当按照国家有关规定和当事人的约定安全用电。用电人未按照国家有关规定和当事人的约定安全用电,造成供电人损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百八十四条 【供用水、气、热力合同】供用水、供用气、供用热力合同,参照供用电合同的有关规定。

第十一章 赠与合同

第一百八十五条 【定义】赠与合同是赠与人将自己的财产无偿给予受赠人,受赠人表示接受赠与的合同。

第一百八十六条 【赠与合同的任意撤销与限制】赠与人在赠与财产的权利转移之前可以撤销赠与。

具有救灾、扶贫等社会公益、道德义务性质的赠与合同或者经过公证的赠与合同,不适用前款规定。

第一百八十七条 【赠与的登记等手续】赠与的财产依法需要办理登记等手续的,应当办理有关手续。

第一百八十八条 【受赠人的交付请求权】具有救灾、扶贫等社会公益、道德义务性质的赠与合同或者经过公证的赠与合同,赠与人不交付赠与的财产的,受赠人可以要求交付。

第一百八十九条 【赠与人责任】因赠与人故意或者重大过失致使赠与的财产毁损、灭失的,赠与人应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百九十条 【附义务赠与】赠与可以附义务。

赠与附义务的,受赠人应当按照约定履行义务。

第一百九十一条 【赠与的瑕疵担保责任】赠与的财产有瑕疵的,赠与人不承担责任。附义务的赠与,赠与的财产有瑕疵的,赠与人在附义务的限度内承担与出卖人相同的责任。

赠与人故意不告知瑕疵或者保证无瑕疵,造成受赠人损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百九十二条 【赠与的法定撤销】受赠人有下列情形之一的,赠与人可以撤销赠与:

(一)严重侵害赠与人或者赠与人的近亲属;

(二)对赠与人有扶养义务而不履行;

(三)不履行赠与合同约定的义务。

赠与人的撤销权,自知道或者应当知道撤销原因之日起一年内行使。

第一百九十三条 【赠与人的继承人或法定代理人的撤销权】因受赠人的违法行为致使赠与人死亡或者丧失民事行为能力的,赠与人的继承人或者法定代理人可以撤销赠与。

赠与人的继承人或者法定代理人的撤销权,自知道或者应当知道撤销原因之日起六个月内行使。

第一百九十四条 【赠与财产的返还】撤销权人撤销赠与的,可以向受赠人要求返还赠与的财产。

第一百九十五条 【赠与义务的免除】赠与人的经济状况显著恶化,严重影响其生产经营或者家庭生活的,可以不再履行赠与义务。

第十二章 借款合同

第一百九十六条 【定义】借款合同是借款人向贷款人借款,到期返还借款并支付利息的合同。

第一百九十七条 【合同形式及主要条款】借款合同采用书面形式,但自然人之间借款另有约定的除外。

借款合同的内容包括借款种类、币种、用途、数额、利率、期限和还款方式等条款。

第一百九十八条 【合同的担保】订立借款合同,贷款人可以要求借款人提供担保。担保依照《中华人民共和国担保法》的规定。

第一百九十九条 【借款人提供其真实情况的义务】订立借款合同,借款人应当按照贷款人的要求提供与借款有关的业务活动和财务状况的真实情况。

第二百条 【利息的预先扣除】借款的利息不得预先在本金中扣除。利息预先在本金中扣除的,应当按照实际借款数额返还借款并计算利息。

第二百零一条 【贷款违约责任】贷款人未按照约定的日期、数额提供借款,造成借款人损失的,应当赔偿损失。

借款人未按照约定的日期、数额收取借款的,应当按照约定的日期、数额支付利息。

第二百零二条 【贷款人的检查、监督权】贷款人按照约定可以检查、监督借款的使用情况。借款人应当按照约定向贷款人定期提供有关财务会计报表等资料。

第二百零三条 【借款使用的限制】借款人未按照约定的借款用途使用借款的,贷款人可以停止发放借款、提前收回借款或者解除合同。

第二百零四条 【利率】办理贷款业务的金融机构贷款的利率,应当按照中国人民银行规定的贷款利率的上下限确定。

第二百零五条 【利息的支付】借款人应当按照约定的期限支付利息。对支付利息的期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定,借款期间不满一年的,应当在返还借款时一并支付;借款期间一年以上的,应当在每届满一年时支付,剩余期间不满一年的,应当在返还借款时一并支付。

第二百零六条 【借款的返还期限】借款人应当按照约定的期限返还借款。对借款期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,借款人可以随时返还;贷款人可以催告借款人在合理期限内返还。

第二百零七条 【逾期利息】借款人未按照约定的期限返还借款的,应当按照约定或者国家有关规定支付逾期利息。

第二百零八条 【提前偿还借款的利息计算】借款人提前偿还借款的,除当事人另有约定的以外,应当按照实际借款的期间计算利息。

第二百零九条 【借款展期】借款人可以在还款期限届满之前向贷款人申请展期。贷款人同意的,可以展期。

第二百一十条 【自然人间借款合同的生效时间】自然人之间的借款合同,自贷款人提供借款时生效。

第二百一十一条 【自然人间借款合同的利率】自然人之间的借款合同对支付利息没有约定或者约定不明确的,视为不支付利息。自然人之间的借款合同约定支付利息的,借款的利率不得违反国家有关限制借款利率的规定。

第十三章 租赁合同

第二百一十二条 【定义】租赁合同是出租人将租赁物交付承租人使用、收益,承租人支付租金的合同。

第二百一十三条 【合同的主要条款】租赁合同的内容包括租赁物的名称、数量、用途、租赁期限、租金及其支付期限和方式、租赁物维修等条款。

第二百一十四条 【租赁期限】租赁期限不得超过二十年。超过二十年的,超过部分无效。

租赁期间届满,当事人可以续订租赁合同,但约定的租赁期限自续订之日起不得超过二十年。

第二百一十五条 【租赁合同的形式】租赁期限六个月以上的,应当采用书面形式。当事人未采用书面形式的,视为不定期租赁。

第二百一十六条 【出租人基本义务】出租人应当按照约定将租赁物交付承租人,并在租赁期间保持租赁物符合约定的用途。

第二百一十七条 【承租人基本义务】承租人应当按照约定的方法使用租赁物。对租赁物的使用方法没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,应当按照租赁物的性质使用。

第二百一十八条 【正当使用租赁物的责任】承租人按照约定的方法或者租赁物的性质使用租赁物,致使租赁物受到损耗的,不承担损害赔偿责任。

第二百一十九条 【未正当使用租赁物的责任】承租人未按照约定的方法或者租赁物的性质使用租赁物,致使租赁物受到损失的,出租人可以解除合同并要求赔偿损失。

第二百二十条 【租赁物的维修】出租人应当履行租赁物的维修义务,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第二百二十一条 【出租人履行维修义务】承租人在租赁物需要维修时可以要求出租人在合理期限内维修。出租人未履行维修义务的,承租人可以自行维修,维修费用由出租人负担。因维修租赁物影响承租人使用的,应当相应减少租金或者延长租期。

第二百二十二条 【租赁物的保管】承租人应当妥善保管租赁物,因保管不善造成租赁物毁损、灭失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第二百二十三条 【租赁物的改善】承租人经出租人同意,可以对租赁物进行改善或者增设他物。

承租人未经出租人同意,对租赁物进行改善或者增设他物的,出租人可以要求承租人恢复原状或者赔偿损失。

第二百二十四条 【转租】承租人经出租人同意,可以将租赁物转租给第三人。承租人转租的,承租人与出租人之间的租赁合同继续有效,第三人对租赁物造成损失的,承租人应当赔偿损失。

承租人未经出租人同意转租的,出租人可以解除合同。

第二百二十五条 【租赁物的收益】在租赁期间因占有、使用租赁物获得的收益,归承租人所有,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第二百二十六条 【支付租金的期限】承租人应当按照约定的期限支付租金。对支付期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定,租赁期间不满一年的,应当在租赁期间届满时支付;租赁期间一年以上的,应当在每届满一年时支付,剩余期间不满一年的,应当在租赁期间届满时支付。

第二百二十七条 【租金的未支付、迟延支付和逾期不支付】承租人无正当理由未支付或者迟延支付租金的,出租人可以要求承租人在合理期限内支付。承租人逾期不支付的,出租人可以解除合同。

第二百二十八条 【租赁物的权利瑕疵】因第三人主张权利,致使承租人不能对租赁物使用、收益的,承租人可以要求减少租金或者不支付租金。

第三人主张权利的,承租人应当及时通知出租人。

第二百二十九条 【所有权变动后的合同效力】租赁物在租赁期间发生所有权变动的,不影响租赁合同的效力。

第二百三十条 【优先购买权】出租人出卖租赁房屋的,应当在出卖之前的合理期限内通知承租人,承租人享有以同等条件优先购买的权利。

第二百三十一条 【租赁物的灭失】因不可归责于承租人的事由,致使租赁物部分或者全部毁损、灭失的,承租人可以要求减少租金或者不支付租金;因租赁物部分或者全部毁损、灭失,致使不能实现合同目的的,承租人可以解除合同。

第二百三十二条 【租期不明的处理】当事人对租赁期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,视为不定期租赁。当事人可以随时解除合同,但出租人解除合同应当在合理期限之前通知承租人。

第二百三十三条 【租赁物的瑕疵担保】租赁物危及承租人的安全或者健康的,即使承租人订立合同时明知该租赁物质量不合格,承租人仍然可以随时解除合同。

第二百三十四条 【共同居住人的居住权】承租人在房屋租赁期间死亡的,与其生前共同居住的人可以按照原租赁合同租赁该房屋。

第二百三十五条 【租赁物的返还】租赁期间届满,承租人应当返还租赁物。返还的租赁物应当符合按照约定或者租赁物的性质使用后的状态。

第二百三十六条 【续租】租赁期间届满,承租人继续使用租赁物,出租人没有提出异议的,原租赁合同继续有效,但租赁期限为不定期。

第十四章 融资租赁合同

第二百三十七条 【定义】融资租赁合同是出租人根据承租人对出卖人、租赁物的选择,向出卖人购买租赁物,提供给承租人使用,承租人支付租金的合同。

第二百三十八条 【合同的主要条款及形式】融资租赁合同的内容包括租赁物名称、数量、规格、技术性能、检验方法、租赁期限、租金构成及其支付期限和方式、币种、租赁期间届满租赁物的归属等条款。

融资租赁合同应当采用书面形式。

第二百三十九条 【租赁物的购买】出租人根据承租人对出卖人、租赁物的选择订立的买卖合同,出卖人应当按照约定向承租人交付标的物,承租人享有与受领标的物有关的买受人的权利。

第二百四十条 【索赔权】出租人、出卖人、承租人可以约定,出卖人不履行买卖合同义务的,由承租人行使索赔的权利。承租人行使索赔权利的,出租人应当协助。

第二百四十一条 【买卖合同的变更】出租人根据承租人对出卖人、租赁物的选择订立的买卖合同,未经承租人同意,出租人不得变更与承租人有关的合同内容。

第二百四十二条 【租赁物所有权】出租人享有租赁物的所有权。承租人破产的,租赁物不属于破产财产。

第二百四十三条 【租金的确定】融资租赁合同的租金,除当事人另有约定的以外,应当根据购买租赁物的大部分或者全部成本以及出租人的合理利润确定。

第二百四十四条 【租赁物的瑕疵担保责任】租赁物不符合约定或者不符合使用目的的,出租人不承担责任,但承租人依赖出租人的技能确定租赁物或者出租人干预选择租赁物的除外。

第二百四十五条 【租赁物的占有和使用】出租人应当保证承租人对租赁物的占有和使用。

第二百四十六条 【租赁物造成的损害责任】承租人占有租赁物期间,租赁物造成第三人的人身伤害或者财产损害的,出租人不承担责任。

第二百四十七条 【租赁物的保管、使用、维修】承租人应当妥善保管、使用租赁物。

承租人应当履行占有租赁物期间的维修义务。

第二百四十八条 【承租人拒付租金责任】承租人应当按照约定支付租金。承租人经催告后在合理期限内仍不支付租金的,出租人可以要求支付全部租金;也可以解除合同,收回租赁物。

第二百四十九条 【租赁物价值的部分返还权】当事人约定租赁期间届满租赁物归承租人所有,承租人已经支付大部分租金,但无力支付剩余租金,出租人因此解除合同收回租赁物的,收回的租赁物的价值超过承租人欠付的租金以及其他费用的,承租人可以要求部分返还。

第二百五十条 【租赁期满租赁物归属】出租人和承租人可以约定租赁期间届满租赁物的归属。对租赁物的归属没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,租赁物的所有权归出租人。

第十五章 承揽合同

第二百五十一条 【定义】承揽合同是承揽人按照定作人的要求完成工作,交付工作成果,定作人给付报酬的合同。

承揽包括加工、定作、修理、复制、测试、检验等工作。

第二百五十二条 【合同的主要条款】承揽合同的内容包括承揽的标的、数量、质量、报酬、承揽方式、材料的提供、履行期限、验收标准和方法等条款。

第二百五十三条 【承揽工作的完成】承揽人应当以自己的设备、技术和劳力,完成主要工作,但当事人另有约定的除外。

承揽人将其承揽的主要工作交由第三人完成的,应当就该第三人完成的工作成果向定作人负责;未经定作人同意的,定作人也可以解除合同。

第二百五十四条 【承揽人对辅助性工作的责任】承揽人可以将其承揽的辅助工作交由第三人完成。承揽人将其承揽的辅助工作交由第三人完成的,应当就该第三人完成的工作成果向定作人负责。

第二百五十五条 【承揽人提供材料的义务】承揽人提供材料的,承揽人应当按照约定选用材料,并接受定作人检验。

第二百五十六条 【定作人提供材料及双方义务】定作人提供材料的,定作人应当按照约定提供材料。承揽人对定作人提供的材料,应当及时检验,发现不符合约定时,应当及时通知定作人更换、补齐或者采取其他补救措施。

承揽人不得擅自更换定作人提供的材料,不得更换不需要修理的零部件。

第二百五十七条 【承揽人的通知义务】承揽人发现定作人提供的图纸或者技术要求不合理的,应当及时通知定作人。因定作人怠于答复等原因造成承揽人损失的,应当赔偿损失。

第二百五十八条 【中途变更工作要求的责任】定作人中途变更承揽工作的要求,造成承揽人损失的,应当赔偿损失。

第二百五十九条 【定作人的协助义务】承揽工作需要定作人协助的,定作人有协助的义务。

定作人不履行协助义务致使承揽工作不能完成的,承揽人可以催告定作人在合理期限内履行义务,并可以顺延履行期限;定作人逾期不履行的,承揽人可以解除合同。

第二百六十条 【承揽人接受监督检查的义务】承揽人在工作期间,应当接受定作人必要的监督检验。定作人不得因监督检验妨碍承揽人的正常工作。

第二百六十一条 【验收质量保证】承揽人完成工作的,应当向定作人交付工作成果,并提交必要的技术资料和有关质量证明。定作人应当验收该工作成果。

第二百六十二条 【质量不合约定的责任】承揽人交付的工作成果不符合质量要求的,定作人可以要求承揽人承担修理、重作、减少报酬、赔偿损失等违约责任。

第二百六十三条 【支付报酬期限】定作人应当按照约定的期限支付报酬。对支付报酬的期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,定作人应当在承揽人交付工作成果时支付;工作成果部分交付的,定作人应当相应支付。

第二百六十四条 【承揽人的留置权】定作人未向承揽人支付报酬或者材料费等价款的,承揽人对完成的工作成果享有留置权,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第二百六十五条 【材料的保管】承揽人应当妥善保管定作人提供的材料以及完成的工作成果,因保管不善造成毁损、灭失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第二百六十六条 【承揽人的保密义务】承揽人应当按照定作人的要求保守秘密,未经定作人许可,不得留存复制品或者技术资料。

第二百六十七条 【共同承揽】共同承揽人对定作人承担连带责任,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第二百六十八条 【定作人的解除权】定作人可以随时解除承揽合同,造成承揽人损失的,应当赔偿损失。

第十六章 建设工程合同

第二百六十九条 【定义】建设工程合同是承包人进行工程建设,发包人支付价款的合同。

建设工程合同包括工程勘察、设计、施工合同。

第二百七十条 【合同形式】建设工程合同应当采用书面形式。

第二百七十一条 【招标投标】建设工程的招标投标活动,应当依照有关法律的规定公开、公平、公正进行。

第二百七十二条 【总包与分包】发包人可以与总承包人订立建设工程合同,也可以分别与勘察人、设计人、施工人订立勘察、设计、施工承包合同。发包人不得将应当由一个承包人完成的建设工程肢解成若干部分发包给几个承包人。

总承包人或者勘察、设计、施工承包人经发包人同意,可以将自己承包的部分工作交由第三人完成。第三人就其完成的工作成果与总承包人或者勘察、设计、施工承包人向发包人承担连带责任。承包人不得将其承包的全部建设工程转包给第三人或者将其承包的全部建设工程肢解以后以分包的名义分别转包给第三人。

禁止承包人将工程分包给不具备相应资质条件的单位。禁止分包单位将其承包的工程再分包。建设工程主体结构的施工必须由承包人自行完成。

第二百七十三条 【重大建设工程合同的订立】国家重大建设工程合同,应当按照国家规定的程序和国家批准的投资计划、可行性研究报告等文件订立。

第二百七十四条 【勘察、设计合同主要内容】勘察、设计合同的内容包括提交有关基础资料和文件(包括概预算)的期限、质量要求、费用以及其他协作条件等条款。

第二百七十五条 【施工合同主要条款】施工合同的内容包括工程范围、建设工期、中间交工工程的开工和竣工时间、工程质量、工程造价、技术资料交付时间、材料和设备供应责任、拨款和结算、竣工验收、质量保修范围和质量保证期、双方相互协作等条款。

第二百七十六条 【建设工程监理】建设工程实行监理的,发包人应当与监理人采用书面形式订立委托监理合同。发包人与监理人的权利和义务以及法律责任,应当依照本法委托合同以及其他有关法律、行政法规的规定。

第二百七十七条 【发包人检查权】发包人在不妨碍承包人正常作业的情况下,可以随时对作业进度、质量进行检查。

第二百七十八条 【隐蔽工程的验收】隐蔽工程在隐蔽以前,承包人应当通知发包人检查。发包人没有及时检查的,承包人可以顺延工程日期,并有权要求赔偿停工、窝工等损失。

第二百七十九条 【竣工验收】建设工程竣工后,发包人应当根据施工图纸及说明书、国家颁发的施工验收规范和质量检验标准及时进行验收。验收合格的,发包人应当按照约定支付价款,并接收该建设工程。

建设工程竣工经验收合格后,方可交付使用;未经验收或者验收不合格的,不得交付使用。

第二百八十条 【勘察、设计人质量责任】勘察、设计的质量不符合要求或者未按照期限提交勘察、设计文件拖延工期,造成发包人损失的,勘察人、设计人应当继续完善勘察、设计,减收或者免收勘察、设计费并赔偿损失。

第二百八十一条 【施工人的质量责任】因施工人的原因致使建设工程质量不符合约定的,发包人有权要求施工人在合理期限内无偿修理或者返工、改建。经过修理或者返工、改建后,造成逾期交付的,施工人应当承担违约责任。

第二百八十二条 【质量保证责任】因承包人的原因致使建设工程在合理使用期限内造成人身和财产损害的,承包人应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第二百八十三条 【发包人违约责任】发包人未按照约定的时间和要求提供原材料、设备、场地、资金、技术资料的,承包人可以顺延工程日期,并有权要求赔偿停工、窝工等损失。

第二百八十四条 【发包人原因致工程停建、缓建的责任】因发包人的原因致使工程中途停建、缓建的,发包人应当采取措施弥补或者减少损失,赔偿承包人因此造成的停工、窝工、倒运、机械设备调迁、材料和构件积压等损失和实际费用。

第二百八十五条 【发包人的原因致勘察、设计、返工、停工或修改设计的责任】因发包人变更计划,提供的资料不准确,或者未按照期限提供必需的勘察、设计工作条件而造成勘察、设计的返工、停工或者修改设计,发包人应当按照勘察人、设计人实际消耗的工作量增付费用。

第二百八十六条 【工程价款的支付】发包人未按照约定支付价款的,承包人可以催告发包人在合理期限内支付价款。发包人逾期不支付的,除按照建设工程的性质不宜折价、拍卖的以外,承包人可以与发包人协议将该工程折价,也可以申请人民法院将该工程依法拍卖。建设工程的价款就该工程折价或者拍卖的价款优先受偿。

第二百八十七条 【适用承揽合同的规定】本章没有规定的,适用承揽合同的有关规定。

第十七章 运输合同第一节 一般规定

第二百八十八条 【定义】运输合同是承运人将旅客或者货物从起运地点运输到约定地点,旅客、托运人或者收货人支付票款或者运输费用的合同。

第二百八十九条 【公共运输承运人】从事公共运输的承运人不得拒绝旅客、托运人通常、合理的运输要求。

第二百九十条 【按约定期间运输义务】承运人应当在约定期间或者合理期间内将旅客、货物安全运输到约定地点。

第二百九十一条 【按约定路线运输义务】承运人应当按照约定的或者通常的运输路线将旅客、货物运输到约定地点。

第二百九十二条 【旅客、托运人或收货人基本义务】旅客、托运人或者收货人应当支付票款或者运输费用。承运人未按照约定路线或者通常路线运输增加票款或者运输费用的,旅客、托运人或者收货人可以拒绝支付增加部分的票款或者运输费用。

第二节 客运合同

第二百九十三条 【合同的成立】客运合同自承运人向旅客交付客票时成立,但当事人另有约定或者另有交易习惯的除外。

第二百九十四条 【持有效客票乘运义务】旅客应当持有效客票乘运。旅客无票乘运、超程乘运、越级乘运或者持失效客票乘运的,应当补交票款,承运人可以按照规定加收票款。旅客不交付票款的,承运人可以拒绝运输。

第二百九十五条 【退票与变更】旅客因自己的原因不能按照客票记载的时间乘坐的,应当在约定的时间内办理退票或者变更手续。逾期办理的,承运人可以不退票款,并不再承担运输义务。

第二百九十六条 【按约定限量携带行李义务】旅客在运输中应当按照约定的限量携带行李。超过限量携带行李的,应当办理托运手续。

第二百九十七条 【违禁品或危险物品的携带禁止】旅客不得随身携带或者在行李中夹带易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性以及有可能危及运输工具上人身和财产安全的危险物品或者其他违禁物品。

旅客违反前款规定的,承运人可以将违禁物品卸下、销毁或者送交有关部门。旅客坚持携带或者夹带违禁物品的,承运人应当拒绝运输。

第二百九十八条 【承运人告知重要事项义务】承运人应当向旅客及时告知有关不能正常运输的重要事由和安全运输应当注意的事项。

第二百九十九条 【承运人迟延运输】承运人应当按照客票载明的时间和班次运输旅客。承运人迟延运输的,应当根据旅客的要求安排改乘其他班次或者退票。

第三百条 【承运人变更运输工具】承运人擅自变更运输工具而降低服务标准的,应当根据旅客的要求退票或者减收票款;提高服务标准的,不应当加收票款。

第三百零一条 【对旅客的救助义务】承运人在运输过程中,应当尽力救助患有急病、分娩、遇险的旅客。

第三百零二条 【旅客伤亡的损害赔偿责任】承运人应当对运输过程中旅客的伤亡承担损害赔偿责任,但伤亡是旅客自身健康原因造成的或者承运人证明伤亡是旅客故意、重大过失造成的除外。

前款规定适用于按照规定免票、持优待票或者经承运人许可搭乘的无票旅客。

第三百零三条 【对行李的赔偿责任】在运输过程中旅客自带物品毁损、灭失,承运人有过错的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

旅客托运的行李毁损、灭失的,适用货物运输的有关规定。

第三节 货运合同

第三百零四条 【托运人告知义务】托运人办理货物运输,应当向承运人准确表明收货人的名称或者姓名或者凭指示的收货人,货物的名称、性质、重量、数量,收货地点等有关货物运输的必要情况。

因托运人申报不实或者遗漏重要情况,造成承运人损失的,托运人应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第三百零五条 【托运人提交文件义务】货物运输需要办理审批、检验等手续的,托运人应当将办理完有关手续的文件提交承运人。

第三百零六条 【托运人的包装义务】托运人应当按照约定的方式包装货物。对包装方式没有约定或者约定不明确的,适用本法第一百五十六条的规定。

托运人违反前款规定的,承运人可以拒绝运输。

第三百零七条 【托运人运送危险货物的义务】托运人托运易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品的,应当按照国家有关危险物品运输的规定对危险物品妥善包装,作出危险物标志和标签,并将有关危险物品的名称、性质和防范措施的书面材料提交承运人。

托运人违反前款规定的,承运人可以拒绝运输,也可以采取相应措施以避免损失的发生,因此产生的费用由托运人承担。

第三百零八条 【托运人请求变更的权利】在承运人将货物交付收货人之前,托运人可以要求承运人中止运输、返还货物、变更到达地或者将货物交给其他收货人,但应当赔偿承运人因此受到的损失。

第三百零九条 【承运人的通知义务及收货人及时提货义务】货物运输到达后,承运人知道收货人的,应当及时通知收货人,收货人应当及时提货。收货人逾期提货的,应当向承运人支付保管费等费用。

第三百一十条 【收货人对货物的检验】收货人提货时应当按照约定的期限检验货物。对检验货物的期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,应当在合理期限内检验货物。收货人在约定的期限或者合理期限内对货物的数量、毁损等未提出异议的,视为承运人已经按照运输单证的记载交付的初步证据。

第三百一十一条 【承运人的赔偿责任】承运人对运输过程中货物的毁损、灭失承担损害赔偿责任,但承运人证明货物的毁损、灭失是因不可抗力、货物本身的自然性质或者合理损耗以及托运人、收货人的过错造成的,不承担损害赔偿责任。

第三百一十二条 【确定货损额的方法】货物的毁损、灭失的赔偿额,当事人有约定的,按照其约定;没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,按照交付或者应当交付时货物到达地的市场价格计算。法律、行政法规对赔偿额的计算方法和赔偿限额另有规定的,依照其规定。

第三百一十三条 【相继运输的责任承担】两个以上承运人以同一运输方式联运的,与托运人订立合同的承运人应当对全程运输承担责任。损失发生在某一运输区段的,与托运人订立合同的承运人和该区段的承运人承担连带责任。

第三百一十四条 【货物的灭失与运费的处理】货物在运输过程中因不可抗力灭失,未收取运费的,承运人不得要求支付运费;已收取运费的,托运人可以要求返还。

第三百一十五条 【运送物的留置】托运人或者收货人不支付运费、保管费以及其他运输费用的,承运人对相应的运输货物享有留置权,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第三百一十六条 【货物的提存】收货人不明或者收货人无正当理由拒绝受领货物的,依照本法第一百零一条的规定,承运人可以提存货物。

第四节 多式联运合同

第三百一十七条 【多式联运经营人的权利义务】多式联运经营人负责履行或者组织履行多式联运合同,对全程运输享有承运人的权利,承担承运人的义务。

第三百一十八条 【多式联运的责任制度】多式联运经营人可以与参加多式联运的各区段承运人就多式联运合同的各区段运输约定相互之间的责任,但该约定不影响多式联运经营人对全程运输承担的义务。

第三百一十九条 【联运单据的转让】多式联运经营人收到托运人交付的货物时,应当签发多式联运单据。按照托运人的要求,多式联运单据可以是可转让单据,也可以是不可转让单据。

第三百二十条 【托运人的损害赔偿责任】因托运人托运货物时的过错造成多式联运经营人损失的,即使托运人已经转让多式联运单据,托运人仍然应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第三百二十一条 【赔偿责任适用法律的规定】货物的毁损、灭失发生于多式联运的某一运输区段的,多式联运经营人的赔偿责任和责任限额,适用调整该区段运输方式的有关法律规定。货物毁损、灭失发生的运输区段不能确定的,依照本章规定承担损害赔偿责任。

第十八章 技术合同第一节 一般规定

第三百二十二条 【定义】技术合同是当事人就技术开发、转让、咨询或者服务订立的确立相互之间权利和义务的合同。

第三百二十三条 【订立技术合同的原则】订立技术合同,应当有利于科学技术的进步,加速科学技术成果的转化、应用和推广。

第三百二十四条 【技术合同的主要条款】技术合同的内容由当事人约定,一般包括以下条款:

(一)项目名称;

(二)标的的内容、范围和要求;

(三)履行的计划、进度、期限、地点、地域和方式;

(四)技术情报和资料的保密;

(五)风险责任的承担;

(六)技术成果的归属和收益的分成办法;

(七)验收标准和方法;

(八)价款、报酬或者使用费及其支付方式;

(九)违约金或者损失赔偿的计算方法;

(十)解决争议的方法;

(十一)名词和术语的解释。

与履行合同有关的技术背景资料、可行性论证和技术评价报告、项目任务书和计划书、技术标准、技术规范、原始设计和工艺文件,以及其他技术文档,按照当事人的约定可以作为合同的组成部分。

技术合同涉及专利的,应当注明发明创造的名称、专利申请人和专利权人、申请日期、申请号、专利号以及专利权的有效期限。

第三百二十五条 【技术合同价款、报酬或使用费】技术合同价款、报酬或者使用费的支付方式由当事人约定,可以采取一次总算、一次总付或者一次总算、分期支付,也可以采取提成支付或者提成支付附加预付入门费的方式。

约定提成支付的,可以按照产品价格、实施专利和使用技术秘密后新增的产值、利润或者产品销售额的一定比例提成,也可以按照约定的其他方式计算。提成支付的比例可以采取固定比例、逐年递增比例或者逐年递减比例。

约定提成支付的,当事人应当在合同中约定查阅有关会计帐目的办法。

第三百二十六条 【职务技术成果的经济权属】职务技术成果的使用权、转让权属于法人或者其他组织的,法人或者其他组织可以就该项职务技术成果订立技术合同。法人或者其他组织应当从使用和转让该项职务技术成果所取得的收益中提取一定比例,对完成该项职务技术成果的个人给予奖励或者报酬。法人或者其他组织订立技术合同转让职务技术成果时,职务技术成果的完成人享有以同等条件优先受让的权利。

职务技术成果是执行法人或者其他组织的工作任务,或者主要是利用法人或者其他组织的物质技术条件所完成的技术成果。

第三百二十七条 【非职务技术成果的经济权属】非职务技术成果的使用权、转让权属于完成技术成果的个人,完成技术成果的个人可以就该项非职务技术成果订立技术合同。

第三百二十八条 【技术成果的精神权属】完成技术成果的个人有在有关技术成果文件上写明自己是技术成果完成者的权利和取得荣誉证书、奖励的权利。

第三百二十九条 【技术合同的无效】非法垄断技术、妨碍技术进步或者侵害他人技术成果的技术合同无效。

第二节 技术开发合同

第三百三十条 【定义及合同形式】技术开发合同是指当事人之间就新技术、新产品、新工艺或者新材料及其系统的研究开发所订立的合同。

技术开发合同包括委托开发合同和合作开发合同。

技术开发合同应当采用书面形式。

当事人之间就具有产业应用价值的科技成果实施转化订立的合同,参照技术开发合同的规定。

第三百三十一条 【委托人义务】委托开发合同的委托人应当按照约定支付研究开发经费和报酬;提供技术资料、原始数据;完成协作事项;接受研究开发成果。

第三百三十二条 【受托人义务】委托开发合同的研究开发人应当按照约定制定和实施研究开发计划;合理使用研究开发经费;按期完成研究开发工作,交付研究开发成果,提供有关的技术资料和必要的技术指导,帮助委托人掌握研究开发成果。

第三百三十三条 【委托人的违约责任】委托人违反约定造成研究开发工作停滞、延误或者失败的,应当承担违约责任。

第三百三十四条 【受托人的违约责任】研究开发人违反约定造成研究开发工作停滞、延误或者失败的,应当承担违约责任。

第三百三十五条 【合作开发各方的主要义务】合作开发合同的当事人应当按照约定进行投资,包括以技术进行投资;分工参与研究开发工作;协作配合研究开发工作。

第三百三十六条 【合作开发各方的违约责任】合作开发合同的当事人违反约定造成研究开发工作停滞、延误或者失败的,应当承担违约责任。

第三百三十七条 【合同的解除】因作为技术开发合同标的的技术已经由他人公开,致使技术开发合同的履行没有意义的,当事人可以解除合同。

第三百三十八条 【风险负担及通知义务】在技术开发合同履行过程中,因出现无法克服的技术困难,致使研究开发失败或者部分失败的,该风险责任由当事人约定。没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,风险责任由当事人合理分担。

当事人一方发现前款规定的可能致使研究开发失败或者部分失败的情形时,应当及时通知另一方并采取适当措施减少损失。没有及时通知并采取适当措施,致使损失扩大的,应当就扩大的损失承担责任。

第三百三十九条 【技术成果的归属】委托开发完成的发明创造,除当事人另有约定的以外,申请专利的权利属于研究开发人。研究开发人取得专利权的,委托人可以免费实施该专利。

研究开发人转让专利申请权的,委托人享有以同等条件优先受让的权利。

第三百四十条 【合作开发技术成果的归属】合作开发完成的发明创造,除当事人另有约定的以外,申请专利的权利属于合作开发的当事人共有。当事人一方转让其共有的专利申请权的,其他各方享有以同等条件优先受让的权利。

合作开发的当事人一方声明放弃其共有的专利申请权的,可以由另一方单独申请或者由其他各方共同申请。申请人取得专利权的,放弃专利申请权的一方可以免费实施该专利。

合作开发的当事人一方不同意申请专利的,另一方或者其他各方不得申请专利。

第三百四十一条 【技术秘密成果的归属与分享】委托开发或者合作开发完成的技术秘密成果的使用权、转让权以及利益的分配办法,由当事人约定。没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,当事人均有使用和转让的权利,但委托开发的研究开发人不得在向委托人交付研究开发成果之前,将研究开发成果转让给第三人。

第三节 技术转让合同

第三百四十二条 【内容及形式】技术转让合同包括专利权转让、专利申请权转让、技术秘密转让、专利实施许可合同。

技术转让合同应当采用书面形式。

第三百四十三条 【技术转让范围的约定】技术转让合同可以约定让与人和受让人实施专利或者使用技术秘密的范围,但不得限制技术竞争和技术发展。

第三百四十四条 【专利实施许可合同的限制】专利实施许可合同只在该专利权的存续期间内有效。专利权有效期限届满或者专利权被宣布无效的,专利权人不得就该专利与他人订立专利实施许可合同。

第三百四十五条 【专利实施许可合同让与人主要义务】专利实施许可合同的让与人应当按照约定许可受让人实施专利,交付实施专利有关的技术资料,提供必要的技术指导。

第三百四十六条 【专利实施许可合同受让人主要义务】专利实施许可合同的受让人应当按照约定实施专利,不得许可约定以外的第三人实施该专利;并按照约定支付使用费。

第三百四十七条 【技术秘密转让合同让与人的义务】技术秘密转让合同的让与人应当按照约定提供技术资料,进行技术指导,保证技术的实用性、可靠性,承担保密义务。

第三百四十八条 【技术秘密转让合同的受让人义务】技术秘密转让合同的受让人应当按照约定使用技术,支付使用费,承担保密义务。

第三百四十九条 【技术转让合同让与人基本义务】技术转让合同的让与人应当保证自己是所提供的技术的合法拥有者,并保证所提供的技术完整、无误、有效,能够达到约定的目标。

第三百五十条 【技术转让合同受让人技术保密义务】技术转让合同的受让人应当按照约定的范围和期限,对让与人提供的技术中尚未公开的秘密部分,承担保密义务。

第三百五十一条 【让与人违约责任】让与人未按照约定转让技术的,应当返还部分或者全部使用费,并应当承担违约责任;实施专利或者使用技术秘密超越约定的范围的,违反约定擅自许可第三人实施该项专利或者使用该项技术秘密的,应当停止违约行为,承担违约责任;违反约定的保密义务的,应当承担违约责任。

第三百五十二条 【受让人违约责任】受让人未按照约定支付使用费的,应当补交使用费并按照约定支付违约金;不补交使用费或者支付违约金的,应当停止实施专利或者使用技术秘密,交还技术资料,承担违约责任;实施专利或者使用技术秘密超越约定的范围的,未经让与人同意擅自许可第三人实施该专利或者使用该技术秘密的,应当停止违约行为,承担违约责任;违反约定的保密义务的,应当承担违约责任。

第三百五十三条 【技术合同让与人侵权责任】受让人按照约定实施专利、使用技术秘密侵害他人合法权益的,由让与人承担责任,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第三百五十四条 【后续技术成果的归属与分享】当事人可以按照互利的原则,在技术转让合同中约定实施专利、使用技术秘密后续改进的技术成果的分享办法。没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,一方后续改进的技术成果,其他各方无权分享。

第三百五十五条 【技术进出口合同的法律适用】法律、行政法规对技术进出口合同或者专利、专利申请合同另有规定的,依照其规定。

第四节 技术咨询合同和技术服务合同

第三百五十六条 【内容】技术咨询合同包括就特定技术项目提供可行性论证、技术预测、专题技术调查、分析评价报告等合同。

技术服务合同是指当事人一方以技术知识为另一方解决特定技术问题所订立的合同,不包括建设工程合同和承揽合同。

第三百五十七条 【技术咨询合同委托人主要义务】技术咨询合同的委托人应当按照约定阐明咨询的问题,提供技术背景材料及有关技术资料、数据;接受受托人的工作成果,支付报酬。

第三百五十八条 【技术咨询合同受托人主要义务】技术咨询合同的受托人应当按照约定的期限完成咨询报告或者解答问题;提出的咨询报告应当达到约定的要求。

第三百五十九条 【委托人与受托人的违约责任】技术咨询合同的委托人未按照约定提供必要的资料和数据,影响工作进度和质量,不接受或者逾期接受工作成果的,支付的报酬不得追回,未支付的报酬应当支付。

技术咨询合同的受托人未按期提出咨询报告或者提出的咨询报告不符合约定的,应当承担减收或者免收报酬等违约责任。

技术咨询合同的委托人按照受托人符合约定要求的咨询报告和意见作出决策所造成的损失,由委托人承担,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第三百六十条 【技术服务合同委托人义务】技术服务合同的委托人应当按照约定提供工作条件,完成配合事项;接受工作成果并支付报酬。

第三百六十一条 【技术服务合同受托人义务】技术服务合同的受托人应当按照约定完成服务项目,解决技术问题,保证工作质量,并传授解决技术问题的知识。

第三百六十二条 【技术服务合同双方当事人的违约责任】技术服务合同的委托人不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定,影响工作进度和质量,不接受或者逾期接受工作成果的,支付的报酬不得追回,未支付的报酬应当支付。

技术服务合同的受托人未按照合同约定完成服务工作的,应当承担免收报酬等违约责任。

第三百六十三条 【新创技术成果的归属和分享】在技术咨询合同、技术服务合同履行过程中,受托人利用委托人提供的技术资料和工作条件完成的新的技术成果,属于受托人。委托人利用受托人的工作成果完成的新的技术成果,属于委托人。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。

第三百六十四条 【技术培训合同、技术中介合同的法律适用】法律、行政法规对技术中介合同、技术培训合同另有规定的,依照其规定。

第十九章 保管合同

第三百六十五条 【定义】保管合同是保管人保管寄存人交付的保管物,并返还该物的合同。

第三百六十六条 【保管费的支付】寄存人应当按照约定向保管人支付保管费。

当事人对保管费没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,保管是无偿的。

第三百六十七条 【保管合同的成立】保管合同自保管物交付时成立,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第三百六十八条 【保管凭证】寄存人向保管人交付保管物的,保管人应当给付保管凭证,但另有交易习惯的除外。

第三百六十九条 【保管行为的要求】保管人应当妥善保管保管物。

当事人可以约定保管场所或者方法。除紧急情况或者为了维护寄存人利益的以外,不得擅自改变保管场所或者方法。

第三百七十条 【保管物有瑕疵或需特殊保管时寄存人的义务】寄存人交付的保管物有瑕疵或者按照保管物的性质需要采取特殊保管措施的,寄存人应当将有关情况告知保管人。寄存人未告知,致使保管物受损失的,保管人不承担损害赔偿责任;保管人因此受损失的,除保管人知道或者应当知道并且未采取补救措施的以外,寄存人应当承担损害赔偿

责任。

第三百七十一条 【第三人代为保管】保管人不得将保管物转交第三人保管,但当事人另有约定的除外。

保管人违反前款规定,将保管物转交第三人保管,对保管物造成损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第三百七十二条 【保管人不得使用保管物的义务】保管人不得使用或者许可第三人使用保管物,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第三百七十三条 【第三人主张权利的返还】第三人对保管物主张权利的,除依法对保管物采取保全或者执行的以外,保管人应当履行向寄存人返还保管物的义务。

第三人对保管人提起诉讼或者对保管物申请扣押的,保管人应当及时通知寄存人。

第三百七十四条 【保管物的毁损灭失与保管人责任】保管期间,因保管人保管不善造成保管物毁损、灭失的,保管人应当承担损害赔偿责任,但保管是无偿的,保管人证明自己没有重大过失的,不承担损害赔偿责任。

第三百七十五条 【寄存人的告示义务】寄存人寄存货币、有价证券或者其他贵重物品的,应当向保管人声明,由保管人验收或者封存。寄存人未声明的,该物品毁损、灭失后,保管人可以按照一般物品予以赔偿。

第三百七十六条 【保管物领取】寄存人可以随时领取保管物。

当事人对保管期间没有约定或者约定不明确的,保管人可以随时要求寄存人领取保管物;约定保管期间的,保管人无特别事由,不得要求寄存人提前领取保管物。

第三百七十七条 【保管物的返还】保管期间届满或者寄存人提前领取保管物的,保管人应当将原物及其孳息归还寄存人。

第三百七十八条 【货币等的返还】保管人保管货币的,可以返还相同种类、数量的货币。保管其他可替代物的,可以按照约定返还相同种类、品质、数量的物品。

第三百七十九条 【保管费支付期限】有偿的保管合同,寄存人应当按照约定的期限向保管人支付保管费。

当事人对支付期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,应当在领取保管物的同时支付。

第三百八十条 【保管人的留置权】寄存人未按照约定支付保管费以及其他费用的,保管人对保管物享有留置权,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第二十章 仓储合同

第三百八十一条 【定义】仓储合同是保管人储存存货人交付的仓储物,存货人支付仓储费的合同。

第三百八十二条 【仓储合同生效时间】仓储合同自成立时生效。

第三百八十三条 【危险物品的储存】储存易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品或者易变质物品,存货人应当说明该物品的性质,提供有关资料。

存货人违反前款规定的,保管人可以拒收仓储物,也可以采取相应措施以避免损失的发生,因此产生的费用由存货人承担。

保管人储存易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品的,应当具备相应的保管条件。

第三百八十四条 【仓储物的验收】保管人应当按照约定对入库仓储物进行验收。保管人验收时发现入库仓储物与约定不符合的,应当及时通知存货人。保管人验收后,发生仓储物的品种、数量、质量不符合约定的,保管人应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第三百八十五条 【仓单】存货人交付仓储物的,保管人应当给付仓单。

第三百八十六条 【仓单应载事项】保管人应当在仓单上签字或者盖章。仓单包括下列事项:

(一)存货人的名称或者姓名和住所;

(二)仓储物的品种、数量、质量、包装、件数和标记;

(三)仓储物的损耗标准;

(四)储存场所;

(五)储存期间;

(六)仓储费;

(七)仓储物已经办理保险的,其保险金额、期间以及保险人的名称;

(八)填发人、填发地和填发日期。

第三百八十七条 【仓单的背书及其效力】仓单是提取仓储物的凭证。存货人或者仓单持有人在仓单上背书并经保管人签字或者盖章的,可以转让提取仓储物的权利。

第三百八十八条 【检查权】保管人根据存货人或者仓单持有人的要求,应当同意其检查仓储物或者提取样品。

第三百八十九条 【保管人的通知义务】保管人对入库仓储物发现有变质或者其他损坏的,应当及时通知存货人或者仓单持有人。

第三百九十条 【保管人的催告义务】保管人对入库仓储物发现有变质或者其他损坏,危及其他仓储物的安全和正常保管的,应当催告存货人或者仓单持有人作出必要的处置。因情况紧急,保管人可以作出必要的处置,但事后应当将该情况及时通知存货人或者仓单持有人。

第三百九十一条 【仓储物提取时间】当事人对储存期间没有约定或者约定不明确的,存货人或者仓单持有人可以随时提取仓储物,保管人也可以随时要求存货人或者仓单持有人提取仓储物,但应当给予必要的准备时间。

第三百九十二条 【仓单持有人提取仓储物】储存期间届满,存货人或者仓单持有人应当凭仓单提取仓储物。存货人或者仓单持有人逾期提取的,应当加收仓储费;提前提取的,不减收仓储费。

第三百九十三条 【保管人的提存权】储存期间届满,存货人或者仓单持有人不提取仓储物的,保管人可以催告其在合理期限内提取,逾期不提取的,保管人可以提存仓储物。

第三百九十四条 【保管人违约责任】储存期间,因保管人保管不善造成仓储物毁损、灭失的,保管人应当承担损害赔偿责任。

因仓储物的性质、包装不符合约定或者超过有效储存期造成仓储物变质、损坏的,保管人不承担损害赔偿责任。

第三百九十五条 【仓储合同的法律适用】本章没有规定的,适用保管合同的有关规定。

第二十一章 委托合同

第三百九十六条 【定义】委托合同是委托人和受托人约定,由受托人处理委托人事务的合同。

第三百九十七条 【委托范围】委托人可以特别委托受托人处理一项或者数项事务,也可以概括委托受托人处理一切事务。

第三百九十八条 【委托费用】委托人应当预付处理委托事务的费用。受托人为处理委托事务垫付的必要费用,委托人应当偿还该费用及其利息。

第三百九十九条 【受托人服从指示的义务】受托人应当按照委托人的指示处理委托事务。需要变更委托人指示的,应当经委托人同意;因情况紧急,难以和委托人取得联系的,受托人应当妥善处理委托事务,但事后应当将该情况及时报告委托人。

第四百条 【亲自处理及转委托】受托人应当亲自处理委托事务。经委托人同意,受托人可以转委托。转委托经同意的,委托人可以就委托事务直接指示转委托的第三人,受托人仅就第三人的选任及其对第三人的指示承担责任。转委托未经同意的,受托人应当对转委托的第三人的行为承担责任,但在紧急情况下受托人为维护委托人的利益需要转委托的除外。

第四百零一条 【受托人的报告义务】受托人应当按照委托人的要求,报告委托事务的处理情况。委托合同终止时,受托人应当报告委托事务的结果。

第四百零二条 【委托人的介入权】受托人以自己的名义,在委托人的授权范围内与第三人订立的合同,第三人在订立合同时知道受托人与委托人之间的代理关系的,该合同直接约束委托人和第三人,但有确切证据证明该合同只约束受托人和第三人的除外。

第四百零三条 【委托人对第三人的权利及第三人选择相对人的权利】受托人以自己的名义与第三人订立合同时,第三人不知道受托人与委托人之间的代理关系的,受托人因第三人的原因对委托人不履行义务,受托人应当向委托人披露第三人,委托人因此可以行使受托人对第三人的权利,但第三人与受托人订立合同时如果知道该委托人就不会订立合同的除外。

受托人因委托人的原因对第三人不履行义务,受托人应当向第三人披露委托人,第三人因此可以选择受托人或者委托人作为相对人主张其权利,但第三人不得变更选定的相对人。

委托人行使受托人对第三人的权利的,第三人可以向委托人主张其对受托人的抗辩。第三人选定委托人作为其相对人的,委托人可以向第三人主张其对受托人的抗辩以及受托人对第三人的抗辩。

第四百零四条 【受托人交付财产义务】受托人处理委托事务取得的财产,应当转交给委托人。

第四百零五条 【委托人支付报酬的义务】受托人完成委托事务的,委托人应当向其支付报酬。因不可归责于受托人的事由,委托合同解除或者委托事务不能完成的,委托人应当向受托人支付相应的报酬。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。

第四百零六条 【受托人的损害赔偿责任】有偿的委托合同,因受托人的过错给委托人造成损失的,委托人可以要求赔偿损失。无偿的委托合同,因受托人的故意或者重大过失给委托人造成损失的,委托人可以要求赔偿损失。

受托人超越权限给委托人造成损失的,应当赔偿损失。

第四百零七条 【委托人的赔偿责任】受托人处理委托事务时,因不可归责于自己的事由受到损失的,可以向委托人要求赔偿损失。

第四百零八条 【另行委托】委托人经受托人同意,可以在受托人之外委托第三人处理委托事务。因此给受托人造成损失的,受托人可以向委托人要求赔偿损失。

第四百零九条 【受托人的连带责任】两个以上的受托人共同处理委托事务的,对委托人承担连带责任。

第四百一十条 【任意解除权】委托人或者受托人可以随时解除委托合同。因解除合同给对方造成损失的,除不可归责于该当事人的事由以外,应当赔偿损失。

第四百一十一条 【委托合同的终止】委托人或者受托人死亡、丧失民事行为能力或者破产的,委托合同终止,但当事人另有约定或者根据委托事务的性质不宜终止的除外。

第四百一十二条 【委托人的后合同义务】因委托人死亡、丧失民事行为能力或者破产,致使委托合同终止将损害委托人利益的,在委托人的继承人、法定代理人或者清算组织承受委托事务之前,受托人应当继续处理委托事务。

第四百一十三条 【受托人死亡后其继承人等的义务】因受托人死亡、丧失民事行为能力或者破产,致使委托合同终止的,受托人的继承人、法定代理人或者清算组织应当及时通知委托人。因委托合同终止将损害委托人利益的,在委托人作出善后处理之前,受托人的继承人、法定代理人或者清算组织应当采取必要措施。

第二十二章 行纪合同

第四百一十四条 【定义】行纪合同是行纪人以自己的名义为委托人从事贸易活动,委托人支付报酬的合同。

第四百一十五条 【处理委托事务的费用承担】行纪人处理委托事务支出的费用,由行纪人负担,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第四百一十六条 【行纪人对委托物的保管义务】行纪人占有委托物的,应当妥善保管委托物。

第四百一十七条 【委托物的处理】委托物交付给行纪人时有瑕疵或者容易腐烂、变质的,经委托人同意,行纪人可以处分该物;和委托人不能及时取得联系的,行纪人可以合理处分。

第四百一十八条 【未按指示进行行纪活动的后果】行纪人低于委托人指定的价格卖出或者高于委托人指定的价格买入的,应当经委托人同意。未经委托人同意,行纪人补偿其差额的,该买卖对委托人发生效力。

行纪人高于委托人指定的价格卖出或者低于委托人指定的价格买入的,可以按照约定增加报酬。没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,该利益属于委托人。

委托人对价格有特别指示的,行纪人不得违背该指示卖出或者买入。

第四百一十九条 【行纪人的介入权】行纪人卖出或者买入具有市场定价的商品,除委托人有相反的意思表示的以外,行纪人自己可以作为买受人或者出卖人。

行纪人有前款规定情形的,仍然可以要求委托人支付报酬。

第四百二十条 【委托物的处置】行纪人按照约定买入委托物,委托人应当及时受领。经行纪人催告,委托人无正当理由拒绝受领的,行纪人依照本法第一百零一条的规定可以提存委托物。

委托物不能卖出或者委托人撤回出卖,经行纪人催告,委托人不取回或者不处分该物的,行纪人依照本法第一百零一条的规定可以提存委托物。

第四百二十一条 【行纪人与第三人的关系】行纪人与第三人订立合同的,行纪人对该合同直接享有权利、承担义务。

第三人不履行义务致使委托人受到损害的,行纪人应当承担损害赔偿责任,但行纪人与委托人另有约定的除外。

第四百二十二条 【行纪人的报酬请求权及留置权】行纪人完成或者部分完成委托事务的,委托人应当向其支付相应的报酬。委托人逾期不支付报酬的,行纪人对委托物享有留置权,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第四百二十三条 【对委托合同的适用】本章没有规定的,适用委托合同的有关规定。

第二十三章 居间合同

第四百二十四条 【定义】居间合同是居间人向委托人报告订立合同的机会或者提供订立合同的媒介服务,委托人支付报酬的合同。

第四百二十五条 【居间人如实报告义务】居间人应当就有关订立合同的事项向委托人如实报告。

居间人故意隐瞒与订立合同有关的重要事实或者提供虚假情况,损害委托人利益的,不得要求支付报酬并应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第四百二十六条 【居间人的报酬请求权】居间人促成合同成立后,委托人应当按照约定支付报酬。对居间人的报酬没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,根据居间人的劳务合理确定。因居间人提供订立合同的媒介服务而促成合同成立的,由该合同的当事人平均负担居间人的报酬。

居间人促成合同成立的,居间活动的费用,由居间人负担。

第四百二十七条 【未促成合同成立的处理】居间人未促成合同成立的,不得要求支付报酬,但可以要求委托人支付从事居间活动支出的必要费用。

附则

第四百二十八条 【生效日期及废止条款】本法自1999年10月1日起施行,《中华人民共和国经济合同法》、《中华人民共和国涉外经济合同法》、《中华人民共和国技术合同法》同时废止。

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MARITIME LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 China lawyer,Legal service in China, Legal consultation of investing a project in China,International Trade Dispute Legal Service. Please contact us at info@zhengyunlawyer.com 



中华人民共和国海商法(英文版)

MARITIME LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA


(Adopted at the 28th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the SeventhNational People's Congress on November 7, 1992, promulgated by Order No. 64 ofthe President of the People's Republic of China on November 7, 1992, andeffective as of July 1, 1993)

 

Chapter I General Provisions

Chapter II Ships

Section 1 Ownership of Ships

Section 2 Mortgage of Ships

Section 3 Maritime Liens

Chapter III Crew

Section 1 Basic Principles

Section 2 the Master

Chapter IV Contract of Carriage of Goods by Sea

Section 1 Basic Principles

Section 2 Carrier's Responsibilities

Section 3 Shipper's Responsibilities

Section 4 Transport Documents

Section 5 Delivery of Goods

Section 6 Cancellation of Contract

Section 7 Special Provisions Regarding Voyage Charter Party

Section 8 Special Provisions Regarding Multimodal Transport Contract

Chapter V Contract of Carriage of Passengers by Sea

Chapter VI Charter Parties

Section 1 Basic Principles

Section 2 Time Charter Party

Section 3 Bareboat Charter Party

Chapter VII Contract of Sea Towage

Chapter VIII Collision of Ships

Chapter IX Salvage at Sea

Chapter X General Average

Chapter XI Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims

Chapter XII Contract of Marine Insurance

Section 1 Basic Principles

Section 2 Conclusion, Termination and Assignment of Contract

Section 3 Obligations of the Insured

Section 4 Liability of the Insurer

Section 5 Loss of or Damage to the Subject Matter Insured and Abandonment

Section 6 Payment of Indemnity

Chapter XIII Limitation of Time

Chapter XIV application of Law in Relation to Foreign-Related Matters

Chapter XV Supplementary Provisions

 

Article 1

This Code is enacted with a view to regulating the relations arising frommaritime transport and those pertaining to ships, to securing and protectingthe legitimate rights and interests of the parties concerned, and to promotingthe development of maritime transport, economy and trade.

 

Article 2

"Maritime transport" as referred to in this Code means thecarriage of goods and passengers by sea, including the sea-river and river-seadirect transport.

The provisions concerning contracts of carriage of goods by sea ascontained in Chapter IV of this Code shall not be applicable to the maritimetransport of goods between the ports of the People's Republic of China.

 

Article 3

"Ship" as referred to in this Code means sea-going ships andother mobile units, but does not include ships or craft to be used for militaryor public service purposes, nor small ships of less than 20 tons gross tonnage.

The term "ship" as referred to in the preceding paragraph shallalso include ship's apparel.

 

Article 4

Maritime transport and towage services between the ports of the People'sRepublic of China shall be undertaken by ships flying the national flag of thePeople's Republic of China, except as otherwise provided for by laws oradministrative rules and regulations.

No foreign ships may engage in the maritime transport or towage servicesbetween the ports of the People's Republic of China unless permitted by thecompetent authorities of transport and communications under the State Council.

 

Article 5

Ships are allowed to sail under the national flag of the People's Republicof China after being registered, as required by law, and granted thenationality of the People's Republic of China.

Ships illegally flying the national flag of the People's Republic of Chinashall be prohibited and fined by the authorities concerned.

 

Article 6

All matters pertaining to maritime transport shall be administered by thecompetent authorities of transport and communications under the State Council.The specific measures governing such administration shall be worked out by suchauthorities and implemented after being submitted to and approved by the StateCouncil.

 

Article 7

The ownership of a ship means the shipowner's rights to lawfully possess,utilize, profit from and dispose of the ship in his ownership.

 

Article 8

With respect to a State-owned ship operated by an enterprise owned by thewhole people having a legal person status granted by the State, the provisionsof this Code regarding the shipowner shall apply to that legal person.

 

Article 9

The acquisition, transference or extinction of the ownership of a shipshall be registered at the ship registration authorities; no acquisition,transference or extinction of the ship's ownership shall act against a thirdparty unless registered.

The transference of the ownership of a ship shall be made by a contract inwriting.

 

Article 10

Where a ship is jointly owned by two or more legal persons or individuals,the joint ownership thereof shall be registered at the ship registrationauthorities. The joint ownership of the ship shall not act against a thirdparty unless registered.

 

Article 11

The right of mortgage with respect to a ship is the right of preferredcompensation enjoyed by the mortgagee of that ship from the proceeds of theauction sale made in accordance with law where and when the mortgagor fails topay his debt to the mortgagee secured by the mortgage of that ship.

 

Article 12

The owner of a ship or those authorized thereby may establish the mortgageof the ship.

The mortgage of a ship shall be established by a contract in writing.

 

Article 13

The mortgage of a ship shall be established by registering the mortgage ofthe ship with the ship registration authorities jointly by the mortgagee andthe mortgagor. No mortgage may act against a third party unless registered.

The main items for the registration of the mortgage of a ship shall be:

(1) Name or designation and address of the mortgagee and the name ofdesignation and address of the mortgagor of the ship;

(2) Name and nationality of the mortgaged ship and the authorities thatissued the certificate of ownership and the certificate number thereof;

(3) Amount of debt secured, the interest rate and the period for therepayment of the debt.

Information about the registration of mortgage of ships shall beaccessible to the public for enquiry.

 

Article 14

Mortgage may be established on a ship under construction.

In registering the mortgage of a ship under construction, the buildingcontract of the ship shall as well be submitted to the ship registrationauthorities.

 

Article 15

The mortgaged ship shall be insured by the mortgagor unless the contractprovides otherwise. In case the ship is not insured, the mortgagee has theright to place the ship under insurance coverage and the mortgagor shall payfor the premium thereof.

 

Article 16

The establishment of mortgage by the joint owners of a ship shall, unlessotherwise agreed upon among the joint owners, be subject to the agreement ofthose joint owners who have more than two-thirds of the shares thereof.

The mortgage established by the joint owners of a ship shall not beaffected by virtue of the division of ownership thereof.

 

Article 17

Once a mortgage is established on a ship, the ownership of the mortgagedship shall not be transferred without the consent of the mortgagee.

 

Article 18

In case the mortgagee has transferred all or part of his right to debtsecured by the mortgaged ship to another person, the mortgage shall betransferred accordingly.

 

Article 19

Two or more mortgages may be established on the same ship. The ranking ofthe mortgages shall be determined according to the dates of their respectiveregistrations.

In case two or more mortgages are established, the mortgagees shall bepaid out of the proceeds of the auction sale of the ship in the order ofregistration of their respective mortgages. The mortgages registered on thesame date shall rank equally for payment.

 

Article 20

The mortgages shall be extinguished when the mortgaged ship is lost. Withrespect to the compensation paid from the insurance coverage on account of theloss of the ship, the mortgagee shall be entitled to enjoy priority incompensation over other creditors.

 

Article 21

A maritime lien is the right of the claimant, subject to the provisions ofArticle 22 of this Code, to take priority in compensation against shipowners,bareboat charterers or ship operators with respect to the ship which gave riseto the said claim.

 

Article 22

The following maritime claims shall be entitled to maritime liens:

(1) Payment claims for wages, other remuneration, crew repatriation andsocial insurance costs made by the Master, crew members and other members ofthe complement in accordance with the relevant labour laws, administrativerules and regulations or labour contracts;

(2) Claims in respect of loss of life or personal injury occurred in theoperation of the ship;

(3) Payment claims for ship's tonnage dues, pilotage dues, harbour duesand other port charges;

(4) Payment claims for salvage payment;

(5) Compensation claims for loss of or damage to property resulting fromtortious act in the course of the operation of the ship.

Compensation claims for oil pollution damage caused by a ship carryingmore than 2,000 tons of oil in bulk as cargo that has a valid certificateattesting that the ship has oil pollution liability insurance coverage or otherappropriate financial security are not within the scope of sub-paragraph (5) ofthe preceding paragraph.

 

Article 23

The maritime claims set out in paragraph 1 of Article 22 shall besatisfied in the order listed. However, any of the maritime claims set out insub-paragraph (4) arising later than those under sub-paragraph (1) through (3)shall have priority over those under sub- paragraph (1) through (3). In casethere are more than two maritime claims under sub-paragraphs (1), (2), (3) or(5) of paragraph 1 of Article 22, they shall be satisfied at the same timeregardless of their respective occurrences; where they could not be paid infull, they shall be paid in proportion. Should there be more than two maritimeclaims under sub-paragraph (4), those arising later shall be satisfied first.

 

Article 24

The legal costs for enforcing the maritime liens, the expenses forpreserving and selling the ship, the expenses for distribution of the proceedsof sale and other expenses incurred for the common interests of the claimants,shall be deducted and paid first from the proceeds of the auction sale of theship.

 

Article 25

A maritime lien shall have priority over a possessory lien, and apossessory lien shall have priority over ship mortgage.

The possessory lien referred to in the preceding paragraph means the rightof the ship builder or repairer to secure the building or repairing cost of theship by means of detaining the ship in his possession when the other party tothe contract fails in the performance thereof. The possessory lien shall beextinguished when the ship builder or repairer no longer possesses the ship hehas built or repaired.

 

Article 26

Maritime liens shall not be extinguished by virtue of the transfer of theownership of the ship, except those that have not been enforced within 60 daysof a public notice on the transfer of the ownership of the ship made by a courtat the request of the transferee when the transfer was effected.

 

Article 27

In case the maritime claims provided for in Article 22 of this Code aretransferred, the maritime liens attached thereto shall be transferredaccordingly.

 

Article 28

A maritime lien shall be enforced by the court by arresting the ship thatgave rise to the said maritime lien.

 

Article 29

A maritime lien shall, except as provided for in Article 26 of this Code,be extinguished under one of the following circumstances:

(1) The maritime claim attached by a maritime lien has not been enforcedwithin one year of the existence of such maritime lien;

(2) The ship in question has been the subject of a forced sale by thecourt;

(3) The ship has been lost.

The period of one year specified in sub-paragraph (1) of the precedingparagraph shall not be suspended or interrupted.

 

Article 30

The provisions of this Section shall not affect the implementation of thelimitation of liability for maritime claims provided for in Chapter XI of thisCode.

 

Article 31

The term "crew" means the entire complement of the ship,including the Master.

 

Article 32

The Master, deck officers, chief engineer, engineers, electrical engineerand radio operator must be those in possession of appropriate certificates ofcompetency.

 

Article 33

Chinese "crew" engaged in international voyages must possessSeaman's Book and other relevant certificates issued by the harboursuperintendency authorities of the People's Republic of China.

 

Article 34

In the absence of specific stipulations in this Code as regards theemployment of the crew as well as their labour-related rights and obligations,the provisions of the relevant laws and administrative rules and regulationsshall apply.

 

Article 35

The Master shall be responsible for the management and navigation of theship.

Orders given by the Master within the scope of his functions and powersmust be carried out by other members of the crew, the passengers and allpersons on board.

The Master shall take necessary measures to protect the ship and allpersons on board, the documents, postal matters, the goods as well as otherproperty carried.

 

Article 36

To ensure the safety of the ship and all persons on board, the Mastershall be entitled to confine or take other necessary measures against those whohave committed crimes or violated laws or regulations on board, and to guardagainst their concealment, destruction or forging of evidence.

The Master, having taken actions as referred to in the preceding paragraphof this Article, shall make a written report of the case, which shall bear thesignature of the Master himself and those of two or more others on board, andshall be handed over, together with the offender, to the authorities concernedfor disposition.

 

Article 37

The Master shall make entries in the log book of any occurrence of birthor death on board and shall issue a certificate to that effect in the presenceof two witnesses. The death certificate shall be attached with a list ofpersonal belongings of the deceased, and attestation shall be given by theMaster to the will, if any, of the deceased. Both the death certificate and thewill shall be taken into safe keeping by the Master and handed over to thefamily members of the deceased or the organizations concerned.

 

Article 38

Where a sea casualty has occurred to a ship and the life and property onboard have thus been threatened, the Master shall, with crew members and otherpersons on board under his command, make best efforts to run to the rescue.

Should the foundering and loss of the ship have become inevitable, theMaster may decide to abandon the ship. However, such abandonment shall bereported to the shipowner for approval except in case of emergency.

Upon abandoning the ship, the Master must take all measures first to evacuatethe passengers safely from the ship in an orderly way, then make arrangementsfor crew members to evacuate, while the Master shall be the last to evacuate.

Before leaving the ship, the Master shall direct the crew members to dotheir utmost to rescue the deck log book, the engine log book, the oil recordbook, the radio log book, the charts, documents and papers used in the currentvoyage, as well as valuables, postal matters and cash money.

 

Article 39

The duty of the Master in the management and navigation of the ship shallnot be absolved even with the presence of a pilot piloting the ship.

 

Article 40

Should death occur to the Master or the Master be unable to perform hisduties for whatever reason, the deck officer with the highest rank shall act asthe Master; before the ship sails from its next port of call, the shipownershall appoint a new Master to take command.

 

CHAPTER IV CONTRACT OF CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA
Article 41

A contract of carriage of goods by sea is a contract under which the carrier,against payment of freight, undertakes to carry by sea the goods contracted forshipment by the shipper from one port to another.

 

Article 42

For the purposes of this Chapter:

(1) "Carrier" means the person by whom or in whose name acontract of carriage of goods by sea has been concluded with a shipper;

(2) "Actual carrier" means the person to whom the performance ofcarriage of goods, or of part of the carriage, has been entrusted by thecarrier, and includes any other person to whom such performance has beenentrusted under a sub-contract;

(3) "Shipper" means:

a) The person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf a contract ofcarriage of goods by sea has been concluded with a carrier;

b) The person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf the goods havebeen delivered to the carrier involved in the contract of carriage of goods bysea;

(4) "Consignee" means the person who is entitled to takedelivery of the goods;

(5) "Goods" includes live animals and containers, pallets orsimilar articles of transport supplied by the shipper for consolidating thegoods.

 

Article 43

The carrier or the shipper may demand confirmation of the contract ofcarriage of goods by sea in writing. However, voyage charter shall be done inwriting. Telegrams, telexes and telefaxes have the effect of written documents.

 

Article 44

Any stipulation in a contract of carriage of goods by sea or a bill oflading or other similar documents evidencing such contract that derogates fromthe provisions of this Chapter shall be null and void. However, such nullityand voidness shall not affect the validity of other provisions of the contractor the bill of lading or other similar documents. A clause assigning thebenefit of insurance of the goods in favour of the carrier or any similarclause shall be null and void.

 

Article 45

The provisions of Article 44 of this Code shall not prejudice the increaseof duties and obligations by the carrier besides those set out in this Chapter.

 

Section 2 Carrier's Responsibilities
Article 46

The responsibilities of the carrier with regard to the goods carried incontainers covers the entire period during which the carrier is in charge ofthe goods, starting from the time the carrier has taken over the goods at theport of loading, until the goods have been delivered at the port of discharge.The responsibility of the carrier with respect to non-containerized goodscovers the period during which the carrier is in charge of the goods, startingfrom the time of loading of the goods onto the ship until the time the goodsare discharged therefrom. During the period the carrier is in charge of thegoods, the carrier shall be liable for the loss of or damage to the goods,except as otherwise provided for in this Section.

The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall not prevent the carrierfrom entering into any agreement concerning carrier's responsibilities withregard to non-containerized goods prior to loading onto and after dischargingfrom the ship.

 

Article 47

The carrier shall, before and at the beginning of the voyage, exercise duediligence to make the ship seaworthy, properly man, equip and supply the shipand to make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers and all other parts ofthe ship in which goods are carried, fit and safe for their reception, carriageand preservation.

 

Article 48

The carrier shall properly and carefully load, handle, stow, carry, keep,care for and discharge the goods carried.

 

Article 49

The carrier shall carry the goods to the port of discharge on the agreedor customary or geographically direct route.

Any deviation in saving or attempting to save life or property at sea orany reasonable deviation shall not be deemed to be an act deviating from theprovisions of the preceding paragraph.

 

Article 50

Delay in delivery occurs when the goods have not been delivered at thedesignated port of discharge within the time expressly agreed upon.

The carrier shall be liable for the loss of or damage to the goods causedby delay in delivery due to the fault of the carrier, except those arising orresulting from causes for which the carrier is not liable as provided for inthe relevant Articles of this Chapter.

The carrier shall be liable for the economic losses caused by delay indelivery of the goods due to the fault of the carrier, even if no loss of ordamage to the goods had actually occurred, unless such economic losses hadoccurred from causes for which the carrier is not liable as provided for in therelevant Articles of this Chapter.

The person entitled to make a claim for the loss of goods may treat thegoods as lost when the carrier has not delivered the goods within 60 days fromthe expiry of the time for delivery specified in paragraph 1 of this Article.

 

Article 51

The carrier shall not be liable for the loss of or damage to the goodsoccurred during the period of carrier's responsibility arising or resultingfrom any of the following causes:

(1) Fault of the Master, crew members, pilot or servant of the carrier inthe navigation or management of the ship;

(2) Fire, unless caused by the actual fault of the carrier;

(3) Force majeure and perils, dangers and accidents of the sea or othernavigable waters;

(4) War or armed conflict;

(5) Act of the government or competent authorities, quarantinerestrictions or seizure under legal process;

(6) Strikes, stoppages or restraint of labour;

(7) Saving or attempting to save life or property at sea;

(8) Act of the shipper, owner of the goods or their agents;

(9) Nature or inherent vice of the goods;

(10) Inadequacy of packing or insufficiency of illegibility of marks;

(11) Latent defect of the ship not discoverable by due diligence;

(12) Any other causes arising without the fault of the carrier or hisservant or agent.

The carrier who is entitled to exoneration from the liability forcompensation as provided for in the preceding paragraph shall, with theexception of the causes given in sub-paragraph (2), bear the burden of proof.

 

Article 52

The carrier shall not be liable for the loss of or damage to the liveanimals arising or resulting from the special risks inherent in the carriagethereof. However, the carrier shall be bound to prove that he has fulfilled thespecial requirements of the shipper with regard to the carriage of the live animalsand that under the circumstances of the sea carriage, the loss or damage hasoccurred due to the special risks inherent therein.

 

Article 53

In case the carrier intends to ship the goods on deck, he shall come intoan agreement with the shipper or comply with the custom of the trade or therelevant laws or administrative rules and regulations.

When the goods have been shipped on deck in accordance with the provisionsof the preceding paragraph, the carrier shall not be liable for the loss of ordamage to the goods caused by the special risks involved in such carriage.

If the carrier, in breach of the provisions of the first paragraph of thisArticle, has shipped the goods on deck and the goods have consequently sufferedloss or damage, the carrier shall be liable therefore.

 

Article 54

Where loss or damage or delay in delivery has occurred from causes fromwhich the carrier or his servant or agent is not entitled to exoneration fromliability, together with another cause, the carrier shall be liable only to theextent that the loss, damage or delay in delivery is attributable to the causesfrom which the carrier is not entitled to exoneration from liability; however,the carrier shall bear the burden of proof with respect to the loss, damage ordelay in delivery resulting from the other cause.

 

Article 55

The amount of indemnity for the loss of the goods shall be calculated onthe basis of the actual value of the goods so lost, while that for the damageto the goods shall be calculated on the basis of the difference between thevalues of the goods before and after the damage, or on the basis of theexpenses for the repair.

The actual value shall be the value of the goods at the time of shipmentplus insurance and freight.

From the actual value referred to in the preceding paragraph, deductionshall be made, at the time of compensation, of the expenses that had beenreduced or avoided as a result of the loss or damage occurred.

 

Article 56

The carrier's liability for the loss of or damage to the goods shall belimited to an amount equivalent to 666.67 Units of Account per package or othershipping unit, or 2 Units of Account per kilogramme of the gross weight of thegoods lost or damaged, whichever is the higher, except where the nature andvalue of the goods had been declared by the shipper before shipment andinserted in the bill of lading, or where a higher amount than the amount oflimitation of liability set out in this Article had been agreed upon betweenthe carrier and the shipper.

Where a container, pallet or similar article of transport is used to consolidategoods, the number of packages or other shipping units enumerated in the bill oflading as packed in such article of transport shall be deemed to be the numberof packages or shipping units. If not so enumerated, the goods in such articleof transport shall be deemed to be one package or one shipping unit.

Where the article of transport is not owned or furnished by the carrier,such article of transport shall be deemed to be one package or one shippingunit.

 

Article 57

The liability of the carrier for the economic losses resulting from delayin delivery of the goods shall be limited to an amount equivalent to thefreight payable for the goods so delayed. Where the loss of or damage to thegoods has occurred concurrently with the delay in delivery thereof, thelimitation of liability of the carrier shall be that as provided for inparagraph 1 of Article 56 of this Code.

 

Article 58

The defence and limitation of liability provided for in this Chapter shallapply to any legal action brought against the carrier with regard to the lossof or damage to or delay in delivery of the goods covered by the contract ofcarriage of goods by sea, whether the claimant is a party to the contract orwhether the action is founded in contract or in tort.

The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply if the actionreferred to in the preceding paragraph is brought against the carrier's servantor agent, and the carrier's servant or agent proves that his action was withinthe scope of his employment or agency.

 

Article 59

The carrier shall not be entitled to the benefit of the limitation ofliability provided for in Article 56 or 57 of this Code if it is proved thatthe loss, damage or delay in delivery of the goods resulted from an act oromission of the carrier done with the intent to cause such loss, damage ordelay or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss, damage or delay wouldprobably result.

The servant or agent of the carrier shall not be entitled to the benefitof limitation of liability provided for in Article 56 or 57 of this Code, if itis proved that the loss, damage or delay in delivery resulted from an act oromission of the servant or agent of the carrier done with the intent to causesuch loss, damage or delay or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss,damage or delay would probably result.

 

Article 60

Where the performance of the carriage or part thereof has been entrustedto an actual carrier, the carrier shall nevertheless remain responsible for theentire carriage according to the provisions of this Chapter. The carrier shallbe responsible, in relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier,for the act or omission of the actual carrier and of his servant or agentacting within the scope of his employment or agency.

Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraph, where acontract of carriage by sea provides explicitly that a specified part of thecarriage covered by the said contract is to be performed by a named actualcarrier other than the carrier, the contract may nevertheless provide that thecarrier shall not be liable for the loss, damage or delay in delivery arisingfrom an occurrence which takes place while the goods are in the charge of theactual carrier during such part of the carriage.

 

Article 61

The provisions with respect to the responsibility of the carrier containedin this Chapter shall be applicable to the actual carrier. Where an action isbrought against the servant or agent of the actual carrier, the provisionscontained in paragraph 2 of Article 58 and paragraph 2 of Article 59 of thisCode shall apply.

 

Article 62

Any special agreement under which the carrier assumes obligations notprovided for in this Chapter or waives rights conferred by this Chapter shallbe binding upon the actual carrier when the actual carrier has agreed inwriting to the contents thereof. The provisions of such special agreement shallbe binding upon the carrier whether the actual carrier has agreed to thecontents or not.

 

Article 63

Where both the carrier and the actual carrier are liable for compensation,they shall jointly be liable within the scope of such liability.

 

Article 64

If claims for compensation have been separately made against the carrier,the actual carrier and their servants or agents with regard to the loss of ordamage to the goods, the aggregate amount of compensation shall not be inexcess of the limitation provided for in Article 56 of this Code.

 

Article 65

The provisions of Article 60 through 64 of this Code shall not affect therecourse between the carrier and the actual carrier.

 

Section 3 Shipper's Responsibilities
Article 66

The shipper shall have the goods properly packed and shall guarantee theaccuracy of the description, mark, number of packages or pieces, weight orquantity of the goods at the time of shipment and shall indemnity the carrieragainst any loss resulting from inadequacy of packing or inaccuracies in theabove-mentioned information.

The carrier's right to indemnification as provided for in the precedingparagraph shall not affect the obligation of the carrier under the contract ofcarriage of goods towards those other than the shipper.

 

Article 67

The shipper shall perform all necessary procedures at the port, customs,quarantine, inspection or other competent authorities with respect to theshipment of the goods and shall furnish to the carrier all relevant documentsconcerning the procedures the shipper has gone through. The shipper shall beliable for any damage to the interest of the carrier resulting from theinadequacy or inaccuracy or delay in delivery of such documents.

 

Article 68

At the time of shipment of dangerous goods, the shipper shall, incompliance with the regulations governing the carriage of such goods, have themproperly packed, distinctly marked and labelled and notify the carrier inwriting of their proper description, nature and the precautions to be taken. Incase the shipper fails to notify the carrier or notified him inaccurately, thecarrier may have such goods landed, destroyed or rendered innocuous when andwhere circumstances so require, without compensation. The shipper shall beliable to the carrier for any loss, damage or expense resulting from suchshippment.

Notwithstanding the carrier's knowledge of the nature of the dangerousgoods and his consent to carry, he may still have such goods landed, destroyedor rendered innocuous, without compensation, when they become an actual dangerto the ship, the crew and other persons on board or to other goods. However,the provisions of this paragraph shall not prejudice the contribution ingeneral average, if any.

 

Article 69

The shipper shall pay the freight to the carrier as agreed.

The shipper and the carrier may reach an agreement that the freight shallbe paid by the consignee. However, such an agreement shall be noted in thetransport documents.

 

Article 70

The shipper shall not be liable for the loss sustained by the carrier orthe actual carrier, or for the damage sustained by the ship, unless such lossor damage was caused by the fault of the shipper, his servant or agent.

The servant or agent of the shipper shall not be liable for the losssustained by the carrier or the actual carrier, or for the damage sustained bythe ship, unless the loss or damage was caused by the fault of the servant oragent of the shipper.

 

Article 71

A bill of lading is a document which serves as an evidence of the contractof carriage of goods by sea and the taking over or loading of the goods by thecarrier, and based on which the carrier undertakes to deliver the goods againstsurrendering the same. A provision in the document stating that the goods areto be delivered to the order of a named person, or to order, or to bearer,constitutes such an undertaking.

 

Article 72

When the goods have been taken over by the carrier or have been loaded onboard, the carrier shall, on demand of the shipper, issue to the shipper a billof lading.

The bill of lading may be signed by a person authorized by the carrier. Abill of lading signed by the Master of the ship carrying the goods is deemed tohave been signed on behalf of the carrier.

 

Article 73

A bill of lading shall contain the following particulars:

(1) Description of the goods, mark, number of packages or pieces, weightor quantity, and a statement, if applicable, as to the dangerous nature of thegoods;

(2) Name and principal place of business of the carrier;

(3) Name of the ship;

(4) Name of the shipper;

(5) Name of the consignee;

(6) Port of loading and the date on which the goods were taken over by thecarrier at the port of loading;

(7) Port of discharge;

(8) Place where the goods were taken over and the place where the goodsare to be delivered in case of a multimodal transport bill of lading;

(9) Date and place of issue of the bill of lading and the number oforiginals issued;

(10) Payment of freight;

(11) Signature of the carrier or of a person acting on his behalf.

In a bill of lading, the lack of one or more particulars referred to inthe preceding paragraph does not affect the function of the bill of lading assuch, provided that it nevertheless meets the requirements set forth in Article71 of this Code.

 

Article 74

If the carrier has issued, on demand of the shipper, areceived-for-shipment bill of lading or other similar documents before thegoods are loaded on board, the shipper may surrender the same to the carrier asagainst a shipped bill of lading when the goods have been loaded on board. Thecarrier may also note on the received-for-shipment bill of lading or othersimilar documents with the name of the carrying ship and the date of loading,and, when so noted, the received-for- shipment bill of lading or other similardocuments shall be deemed to constitute a shipped bill of lading.

 

Article 75

If the bill of lading contains particulars concerning the description,mark, number of packages or pieces, weight or quantity of the goods withrespect to which the carrier or the other person issuing the bill of lading onhis behalf has the knowledge or reasonable grounds to suspect that suchparticulars do not accurately represent the goods actually received, or, wherea shipped bill of lading is issued, loaded, or if he has had no reasonablemeans of checking, the carrier or such other person may make a note in the billof lading specifying those inaccuracies, the grounds for suspicion or the lackof reasonable means of checking.

 

Article 76

If the carrier or the other person issuing the bill of lading on hisbehalf made no note in the bill of lading regarding the apparent order andcondition of the goods, the goods shall be deemed to be in apparent goods orderand condition.

 

Article 77

Except for the note made in accordance with the provisions of Article 75of this Code, the bill of lading issued by the carrier or the other personacting on his behalf is prima facie evidence of the taking over or loading bythe carrier of the goods as described therein. Proof to the contrary by thecarrier shall not be admissible if the bill of lading has been transferred to athird party, including a consignee, who has acted in good faith in reliance onthe description of the goods contained therein.

 

Article 78

The relationship between the carrier and the holder of the bill of ladingwith respect to their rights and obligations shall be defined by the clauses ofthe bill of lading.

Neither the consignee nor the holder of the bill of lading shall be liablefor the demurrage, dead freight and all other expenses in respect of loadingoccurred at the loading port unless the bill of lading clearly states that theaforesaid demurrage, dead freight and all other expenses shall be borne by theconsignee and the holder of the bill of lading.

 

Article 79

The negotiability of a bill of lading shall be governed by the followingprovisions:

(1) A straight bill of lading is not negotiable;

(2) An order bill of lading may be negotiated with endorsement to order orendorsement in blank;

(3) A bearer bill of lading is negotiable without endorsement.

 

Article 80

Where a carrier has issued a document other than a bill of lading as anevidence of the receipt of the goods to be carried, such a document is primafacie evidence of the conclusion of the contract of carriage of goods by seaand the taking over by the carrier of the goods as described therein.

Such documents that are issued by the carrier shall not be negotiable.

 

Article 81

Unless notice of loss or damage is given in writing by the consignee, thecarrier at the time of delivery of the goods by the carrier to the consignee,such delivery shall be deemed to be prima facie evidence of the delivery of thegoods by the carrier as described in the transport documents and of theapparent goods order and condition of such goods.

Where the loss of or damage to the goods is not apparent, the provisionsof the preceding paragraph shall apply if the consignee has not given thenotice in writing within seven consecutive days from the next day of thedelivery of the goods, or, in the case of containerized goods, within 15 daysfrom the next day of the delivery thereof.

The notice in writing regarding the loss or damage need not be given ifthe state of the goods has, at the time of delivery, been the subject of ajoint survey or inspection by the carrier and the consignee.

 

Article 82

The carrier shall not be liable for compensation if no notice on theeconomic losses resulting from delay in delivery of the goods has been receivedfrom the consignee within 60 consecutive days from the next day on which thegoods had been delivered by the carrier to the consignee.

 

Article 83

The consignee may, before taking delivery of the goods at the port ofdestination, and the carrier may, before delivering the goods at the port ofdestination, request the cargo inspection agency to have the goods inspected.The party requesting such inspection shall bear the cost thereof but isentitled to recover the same from the party causing the damage.

 

Article 84

The carrier and the consignee shall mutually provide reasonable facilitiesfor the survey and inspection stipulated in Article 81 and 83 of this Code.

 

Article 85

Where the goods have been delivered by the actual carrier, the notice inwriting given by the consignee to the actual carrier under Article 81 of thisCode shall have the same effect as that given to the carrier, and that given tothe carrier shall have the same effect as that given to the actual carrier,

 

Article 86

If the goods were not taken delivery of at the port of discharge or if theconsignee has delayed or refused the taking delivery of the goods, the Mastermay discharge the goods into warehouses or other appropriate places, and anyexpenses or risks arising therefrom shall be borne by the consignee.

 

Article 87

If the freight, contribution in general average, demurrage to be paid tothe carrier and other necessary charges paid by the carrier on behalf of theowner of the goods as well as other charges to be paid to the carrier have notbeen paid in full, nor has appropriate security been given, the carrier mayhave a lien, to a reasonable extent, on the goods.

 

Article 88

If the goods under lien in accordance with the provisions of Article 87 ofthis Code have not been taken delivery of within 60 days from the next day ofthe ship's arrival at the port of discharge, the carrier may apply to the courtfor an order on the selling the goods by auction; where the goods areperishable or the expenses for keeping such goods would exceed their value, thecarrier may apply for an earlier sale by auction.

The proceeds from the auction sale shall be used to pay off the expensesfor the storage and auction sale of the goods, the freight and other relatedcharges to be paid to the carrier. If the proceeds fall short of such expenses,the carrier is entitled to claim the difference from the shipper, whereas anyamount in surplus shall be refunded to the shipper. If there is no way to makethe refund and such surplus amount has not been claimed at the end of one fullyear after the auction sale, it shall go to the State Treasury.

 

Section 6 Cancellation of Contract
Article 89

The shipper may request the cancellation of the contract of carriage ofgoods by sea before the ship sails from the port of loading. However, except asotherwise provided for in the contract, the shipper shall in this case pay halfof the agreed amount of freight; if the goods have already been loaded onboard, the shipper shall bear the expenses for the loading and discharge andother related charges.

 

Article 90

Either the carrier or the shipper may request the cancellation of thecontract and neither shall be liable to the other if, due to force majeure orother causes not attributable to the fault of the carrier or the shipper, thecontract could not be performed prior to the ship's sailing from its port ofloading. If the freight has already been paid, it shall be refunded to theshipper, and, if the goods have already been loaded on board, theloading/discharge expenses shall be borne by the shipper. If a bill of loadinghas already been issued, it shall be returned by the shipper to the carrier.

 

Article 91

If, due to force majeure or any other causes not attributable to the faultof the carrier or the shipper, the ship could not discharge its goods at theport of destination as provided for in the contract of carriage, unless thecontract provides otherwise, the Master shall be entitled to discharge thegoods at a safe port or place near the port of destination and the contract ofcarriage shall be deemed to have been fulfilled.

In deciding the discharge of the goods, the Master shall inform the shipperor the consignee and shall take the interests of the shipper or the consigneeinto consideration.

 

Section 7 Special Provisions Regarding Voyage Charter Party
Article 92

A voyage charter party is a charter party under which the shipownercharters out and the charterer charters in the whole or part of the ship'sspace for the carriage by sea of the intended goods from one port to anotherand the charterer pays the agreed amount of freight.

 

Article 93

A voyage charter party shall mainly contain, interalia, name of theshipowner, name of the charterer, name and nationality of the ship, its bale orgrain capacity, description of the goods to be loaded, port of loading, port ofdestination, laydays, time for loading and discharge, payment of freight, demurrage,dispatch and other relevant matters.

 

Article 94

The provisions in Article 47 and Article 49 of this Code shall apply tothe shipowner under voyage charter party.

The other provisions in this Chapter regarding the rights and obligationsof the parties to the contract shall apply to the shipowner and the chartererunder voyage charter only in the absence of relevant provisions or in theabsence of provisions differing therefrom in the voyage charter.

 

Article 95

Where the holder of the bill of lading is not the charterer in the case ofa bill of lading issued under a voyage charter, the rights and obligations ofthe carrier and the holder of the bill of lading shall be governed by theclauses of the bill of lading. However, if the clauses of the voyage charterparty are incorporated into the bill of lading, the relevant clauses of thevoyage charter party shall apply.

 

Article 96

The shipowner shall provide the intended ship. The intended ship may besubstituted with the consent of the charterer. However, if the ship substituteddoes not meet the requirements of the charter party, the charterer may rejectthe ship or cancel the charter. Should any damage or loss occur to thecharterer as a result of the shipowner's failure in providing the intended shipdue to his fault, the shipowner shall be liable for compensation.

 

Article 97

If the shipowner has failed to provide the ship within the laydays fixedin the charter, the charterer is entitled to cancel the charter party. However,if the shipowner had notified the charterer of the delay of the ship and theexpected date of its arrival at the port of loading, the charterer shall notifythe shipowner whether to cancel the charter within 48 hours of the receipt ofthe shipowner's notification.

Where the charterer has suffered losses as a result of the delay inproviding the ship due to the fault of the shipowner, the shipowner shall beliable for compensation.

 

Article 98

Under a voyage charter, the time for loading and discharge and the way ofcalculation thereof, as well as the rate of demurrage that would incur afterthe expiration of the laytime and the rate of dispatch money to be paid as aresult of the completion of loading or discharge ahead of schedule, shall befixed by the shipowner and the charterer upon mutual agreement.

 

Article 99

The charterer may sublet the ship he chartered, but the rights andobligations under the head charter shall not be affected.

 

Article 100

The charterer shall provide the intended goods, but he may replace thegoods with the consent of the shipowner. However, if the goods replaced isdetrimental to the interests of the shipowner, the shipowner shall be entitledto reject such goods and cancel the charter.

Where the shipowner has suffered losses as a result of the failure of thecharterer in providing the intended goods, the charterer shall be liable forcompensation.

 

Article 101

The shipowner shall discharge the goods at the port of discharge specifiedin the charter party. Where the charter party contains a clause allowing thechoice of the port of discharge by the charterer, the Master may choose onefrom among the agreed picked ports to discharge the goods, in case thecharterer did not, as agreed in the charter, instruct in time as to the portchosen for discharging the goods. Where the charterer did not instruct in timeas to the chosen port of discharge, as agreed in the charter, and the shipownersuffered losses thereby, the charterer shall be liable for compensation; wherethe charterer has suffered losses as a result of the shipowner's arbitrarychoice of a port to discharge the goods, in disregard of the provisions in therelevant charter, the shipowner shall be liable for compensation.

 

Section 8 Special Provisions Regarding 
Multimodal Transport Contract

Article 102

A multimodal transport contract as referred to in this Code means a contractunder which the multimodal transport operator undertakes to transport thegoods, against the payment of freight for the entire transport, from the placewhere the goods were received in his charge to the destination and to deliverthem to the consignee by two or more different modes of transport, one of whichbeing sea carriage.

The multimodal transport operator as referred to in the precedingparagraph means the person who has entered into a multimodal transport contractwith the shipper either by himself or by another person acting on his behalf.

 

Article 103

The responsibility of the multimodal transport operator with respect tothe goods under multimodal transport contract covers the period from the timehe takes the goods in his charge to the time of their delivery.

 

Article 104

The multimodal transport operator shall be responsible for the performanceof the multimodal transport contract or the procurement of the performancetherefor, and shall be responsible for the entire transport.

The multimodal transport operator may enter into separate contracts withthe carriers of the different modes defining their responsibilities with regardto the different sections of the transport under the multimodal transportcontracts. However, such separate contracts shall not affect the responsibilityof the multimodal transport operator with respect to the entire transport.

 

Article 105

If loss of or damage to the goods has occurred in a certain section of thetransport, the provisions of the relevant laws and regulations governing thatspecific section of the multimodal transport shall be applicable to mattersconcerning the liability of the multimodal transport operator and thelimitation thereof.

 

Article 106

If the section of transport in which the loss of or damage to the goodsoccurred could not be ascertained, the multimodal transport operator shall beliable for compensation in accordance with the stipulations regarding thecarrier's liability and the limitation thereof as set out in this Chapter.

 

CHAPTER V CONTRACT OF CARRIAGE OF PASSENGERS BY SEA
Article 107

A contract of carriage of passengers by sea is a contract whereby thecarrier undertakes to carry passengers and their luggage by sea from one portto another by ships suitable for that purpose against payment of fare by thepassengers.

 

Article 108

For the purposes of this Chapter:

(1) "Carrier" means the person by whom or in whose name acontract of carriage of passengers by sea has been entered into with thepassengers;

(2) "Actual carrier" means the person by whom the whole or partof the carriage of passengers has been performed as entrusted by the carrier,including those engaged in such carriage under a sub-contract.

(3) "Passenger" means a person carried under a contract ofcarriage of passengers by sea. With the consent of the carrier, a personsupervising the carriage of goods aboard a ship covered by a contract ofcarriage of goods is regarded as a passenger;

(4) "Luggage" means any article or vehicle shipped by thecarrier under the contract of carriage of passengers by sea, with the exceptionof live animals.

(5) "Cabin luggage" means the luggage which the passenger has inhis cabin or is otherwise in his possession, custody or control.

 

Article 109

The provisions regarding the responsibilities of the carrier as containedin this Chapter shall be applicable to the actual carrier, and the provisionsregarding the responsibilities of the servant or agent of the carrier ascontained in this Chapter shall be applicable to the servant or agent of theactual carrier.

 

Article 110

The passage ticket serves as an evidence that a contract of carriage ofpassengers by sea has been entered into.

 

Article 111

The period of carriage for the carriage of passengers by sea commencesfrom the time of embarkation of the passengers and terminates at the time oftheir disembarkation, including the period during which the passengers aretransported by water from land to the ship or vice versa, if such cost oftransport is included in the fare. However, the period of carriage does notinclude the time when the passengers are at a marine terminal or station or ona quay or in or on any other port installations.

The period of carriage for the cabin luggage of the passengers shall bethe same as that stipulated in the preceding paragraph. The period of carriagefor luggage other than the cabin luggage commences from the time when thecarrier or his servant or agent receives it into his charge and terminates atthe time when the carrier or his servant or agent redelivers it to thepassengers.

 

Article 112

A passenger travelling without a ticket or taking a higher class berththan booked or going beyond the distance paid for shall pay for the fare or theexcess fare as required by relevant regulations, and the carrier may, accordingto the relevant regulations, charge additional fare. Should any passengerrefuse to pay, the Master is entitled to order him to disembark at a suitableplace and the carrier has the right of recourse against him.

 

Article 113

No passenger may take on board or pack in their luggage contraband goodsor any article of an inflammable, explosive, poisonous, corrosive orradioactive nature or other dangerous goods that would endanger the safety oflife and property on board.

The carrier may have the contraband or dangerous goods brought on board bythe passenger or packed in his luggage in breach of the provisions of thepreceding paragraph discharged, destroyed or rendered innocuous at any time andat any place or sent over to the appropriate authorities, without being liablefor compensation.

The passenger shall be liable for compensation if any loss or damageoccurs as a result of his breach of the provisions of paragraph 1 of thisArticle.

 

Article 114

During the period of carriage of the passengers and their luggage asprovided for in Article 111 of this Code, the carrier shall be liable for thedeath of or personal injury to passengers or the loss of or damage to theirluggage resulting from accidents caused by the fault of the carrier or hisservant or agent committed within the scope of his employment or agency.

The claimant shall bear the burden of proof regarding the fault of thecarrier or his servant or agent, with the exception, however, of thecircumstances specified in paragraphs 3 and 4 of this Article.

If the death of or personal injury to the passengers or loss of or damageto the passengers' cabin luggage occurred as a result of shipwreck, collision,stranding, explosion, fire or the defect of the ship, it shall be presumed thatthe carrier or his servant or agent has committed a fault, unless proof to thecontrary has been given by the carrier or his servant or agent.

As to any loss of or damage to the luggage other than the passenger'scabin luggage, unless the carrier or his servant or agent proves to thecontrary, it shall be presumed that the carrier or his servant or agent hascommitted a fault, no matter how the loss or damage was caused.

 

Article 115

If it is proved by the carrier that the death of or personal injury to thepassenger or the loss of or damage to his luggage was caused by the fault ofthe passenger himself or the faults of the carrier and the passenger combined,the carrier's liability may be exonerated or appropriately mitigated.

If it is proved by the carrier that the death of or personal injury to thepassenger or the loss of or damage to the passenger's luggage was intentionallycaused by the passenger himself, or the death or personal injury was due to thehealth condition of his, the carrier shall not be liable therefore.

 

Article 116

The carrier shall not be liable for any loss of or damage to the monies,gold, silver, jewellery, negotiable securities or other valuables of thepassengers.

If the passenger has entrusted the above-mentioned valuables to thesafe-keeping of the carrier under an agreement for that purpose, the carriershall be liable for compensation in accordance with the provisions of Article117 of this Code. Where the limitation of liability agreed upon between thecarrier and the passenger in writing is higher than that set out in Article 117of this Code, the carrier shall make the compensation in accordance with thathigher amount.

 

Article 117

Except the circumstances specified in paragraph 4 of this Article, thelimitation of liability of the carrier under each carriage of passengers by seashall be governed by the following:

(1) For death of or personal injury to the passenger: not exceeding 46,666Units of Account per passenger;

(2) For loss of or damage to the passengers' cabin luggage: not exceeding833 Units of Account per passenger;

(3) For loss of or damage to the passengers' vehicles including theluggage carried therein: not exceeding 3,333 Units of Account per vehicle;

(4) For loss of or damage to luggage other than those described in sub-paragraphs (2) and (3) above: not exceeding 1,200 Units of Account perpassenger.

An agreement may be reached between the carrier and the passengers withrespect to the deductibles applicable to the compensation for loss of or damageto the passengers' vehicles and luggage other than their vehicles. However, thedeductible with respect to the loss of or damage to the passengers' vehiclesshall not exceed 117 Units of Account per vehicle, whereas the deductible forthe loss of or damage to the luggage other than the vehicle shall not exceed 13Units of Account per piece of luggage per passenger. In calculating the amountof compensation for the loss of or damage to the passenger's vehicle or theluggage other than the vehicle, deduction shall be made of the agreeddeductibles the carrier is entitled to.

A higher limitation of liability than that set out in sub-paragraph (1)above may be agreed upon between the carrier and the passenger in writing.

The limitation of liability of the carrier with respect to the carriage ofpassengers by sea between the ports of the People's Republic of China shall befixed by the competent authorities of transport and communications under theState Council and implemented after its being submitted to and approved by theState Council.

 

Article 118

If it is proved that the death of or personal injury to the passenger orthe loss of or damage to the passenger's luggage resulted from an act oromission of the carrier done with the intent to cause such loss or damage orrecklessly and with knowledge that such death or personal injury or such lossor damage would probably result, the carrier shall not invoke the provisionsregarding the limitation of liability contained in Articles 116 and 117 of thisCode.

If it is proved that the death of or personal injury to the passenger orthe loss of or damage to the passenger's luggage resulted from an act oromission of the servant or agent of the carrier done with the intent to causesuch loss or damage or recklessly and with knowledge that such death orpersonal injury or such loss or damage would probably result, the servant oragent of the carrier shall not invoke the provisions regarding the limitationof liability contained in Article 116 and 117 of this Code.

 

Article 119

In case of apparent damage to the luggage, the passenger shall notify thecarrier or his servant or agent in writing according to the following:

(1) Notice with respect to cabin luggage shall be made before or at thetime of his embarkation;

(2) Notice regarding luggage other than cabin luggage shall be made beforeor at the time of redelivery thereof.

If the damage to the luggage is not apparent and it is difficult for thepassenger to discover such damage at the time of his disembarkation or of theredelivery of the luggage, or if the luggage has been lost, the passenger shallnotify the carrier or his servant or agent in writing within 15 days from thenext day of disembarkation of the passenger or of the redelivery of theluggage.

If the passenger fails to send in the notice in writing in time inaccordance with the provisions of sub-paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article,it shall be presumed that the luggage has been received undamaged, unless proofto the contrary is made.

Where the luggage has been jointly surveyed or inspected by the passengerand the carrier at the time of redelivery thereof, the above- mentioned noticeneed not be given.

 

Article 120

With regard to the claims made to the carrier's servant or agent, suchservant or agent shall be entitled to invoke the provisions regarding defenceand limitation of liability contained in Article 115, 116 and 117 of this Codeif such servant or agent proves that his act or omission was within the scopeof his employment or agency.

 

Article 121

Where the performance of the carriage of passengers or part thereof hasbeen entrusted by the carrier to an actual carrier, the carrier shall, asstipulated in this Chapter, remain liable for the entire carriage. Where thecarriage is performed by the actual carrier, the carrier shall be liable forthe act or omission of the actual carrier or the act or omission of his servantor agent within the scope of his employment or agency.

 

Article 122

Any special agreement under which the carrier assumes obligations notprovided for in this Chapter or waives the rights conferred by this Chaptershall be binding upon the actual carrier where the actual carrier has expresslyagreed in writing to the contents thereof. Such a special agreement shall bebinding upon the carrier whether the actual carrier has agreed to its contentsor not.

 

Article 123

Where both the carrier and the actual carrier are liable for compensation,they shall be liable jointly and severally within the scope of such liability.

 

Article 124

Where separate claims have been brought against the carrier, the actualcarrier and their servants or agents with respect to the death of or personalinjury to the passengers or the loss of or damage to their luggage, theaggregate amount of compensation shall not be in excess of the limitationprescribed in Article 117 of this Code.

 

Article 125

The provisions of Articles 121 through 124 of this Code shall not affectthe right of recourse between the carrier and the actual carrier.

 

Article 126

Any of the following clauses contained in a contract of carriage ofpassengers by sea shall be null and void:

(1) Any clause that exonerates the statutory responsibility of the carrierin respect of the passenger;

(2) Any clause that reduces the limitation of liability of the carrier ascontained in this Chapter;

(3) Any clause that contains provisions contrary to those of this Chapterconcerning burden of proof;

(4) Any clause that restricts the right of claim of the passenger.

The nullity and voidness of the clauses set out in the preceding paragraphshall not prejudice the validity of the other clauses of the contract.

 

Article 127

The provisions concerning the rights and obligations of the shipowner andthe charterer in this Chapter shall apply only when there are no stipulationsor no different stipulations in this regard in the charter party.

 

Article 128

Charter parties including time charter parties and bareboat charterparties shall be concluded in writing.

 

Article 129

A time charter party is a contract under which the shipowner provides adesignated manned ship to the charterer, and the charterer employs the shipduring the contractual period for the agreed service against payment of hire.

 

Article 130

A time charter party mainly contains the name of the shipowner, the nameof the charter; the name, nationality, class, tonnage, capacity, speed and fuelconsumption of the ship; the trading area; the agreed service, the contractualperiod, the time, place and conditions of delivery and redelivery of the ship;the hire and the way of its payment and other relevant matters.

 

Article 131

The shipowner shall deliver the ship within the time agreed upon in thecharter party.

Where the shipowner acts against the provisions of the precedingparagraph, the charterer is entitled to cancel the charter. However, if theshipowner has notified the charterer of the anticipated delay in delivery andhas given an estimated time of arrival of the ship at the port of delivery, thecharterer shall notify the shipowner, within 48 hours of the receipt of suchnotice from the shipowner, of his decision whether to cancel the charter ornot.

The shipowner shall be liable for the charterer's loss resulting from thedelay in delivery of the ship due to the shipowner's fault.

 

Article 132

At the time of delivery, the shipowner shall exercise due diligence tomake the ship seaworthy. The ship delivered shall be fit for the intendedservice.

Where the shipowner acts against the provisions in the precedingparagraph, the charterer shall be entitled to cancel the charter and claim anylosses resulting therefrom.

 

Article 133

During the charter period, if the ship is found at variance with theseaworthiness or the other conditions agreed upon in the charter, the shipownershall take all reasonable measures to have them restored as soon as possible.

Where the ship has not been operated normally for 24 consecutive hours dueto its failure to maintain the seaworthiness or the other conditions as agreedupon, the charterer shall not pay the hire for the operating time so lost,unless such failure was caused by the charterer.

 

Article 134

The charterer shall guarantee that the ship shall be employed in the agreedmaritime transport between the safe ports or places within the trading areaagreed upon.

If the charterer acts against the provisions of the preceding paragraph,the shipowner is entitled to cancel the charter and claim any losses resultingtherefrom.

 

Article 135

The charterer shall guarantee that the ship shall be employed to carry thelawful merchandise agreed.

Where the ship is to be employed by the charterer to carry live animals ordangerous goods, a prior consent of the shipowner is required.

The charterer shall be liable for any loss of the shipowner resulting fromthe charterer's violation of the provisions of paragraph 1 or paragraph 2 ofthis Article.

 

Article 136

The charterer shall be entitled to give the Master instructions withrespect to the operation of the ship. However, such instructions shall not beinconsistent with the stipulations of the time charter.

 

Article 137

The charterer may sublet the ship under charter, but he shall notify theshipowner of the sublet in time. The rights and obligations agreed upon in thehead charter shall not be affected by the sub-charter.

 

Article 138

Where the ownership of the ship under charter has been transferred by theshipowner, the rights and obligations agreed upon under the original chartershall not be affected. However, the shipowner shall inform the chartererthereof in time. After such transfer, the transferee and the charterer shallcontinue to perform the original charter.

 

Article 139

Should the ship be engaged in salvage operations during the charterperiod, the charterer shall be entitled to half of the amount of the paymentfor salvage operations after deducting therefrom the salvage expenses,compensation for damage, the portion due to crew members and other relevantcosts.

 

Article 140

The charterer shall pay the hire as agreed upon in the charter. Where thecharterer fails to pay the hire as agreed upon, the shipowner shall be entitledto cancel the charter party and claim any losses resulting therefrom.

 

Article 141

In case the charterer fails to pay the hire or other sums of money asagreed upon in the charter, the shipowner shall have a lien on the charterer'sgoods, other property on board and earnings from the sub-charter.

 

Article 142

When the charter redelivers the ship to the shipowner, the ship shall bein the same good order and condition as it was at the time of delivery, fairwear and tear excepted.

Where, upon redelivery, the ship fails to remain in the same good orderand condition as it was at the time of delivery, the charter shall beresponsible for rehabilitation or for compensation.

 

Article 143

If, on the basis of a reasonable calculation, a ship may be able tocomplete its last voyage at around the time of redelivery specified in thecharter and probably thereafter, the charterer is entitled to continue to usethe ship in order to complete that voyage even if its time of redelivery willbe overdue. During the extended period, the charterer shall pay the hire at therate fixed by the charter, and, if the current market rate of hire is higherthan that specified in the charter, the charterer shall pay the hire at thecurrent market rate.

 

Article 144

A bareboat charter party is a charter party under which the shipownerprovides the charterer with an unmanned ship which the charterer shall possess,employ and operate within an agreed period and for which the charterer shallpay the shipowner the hire.

 

Article 145

A bareboat charter party mainly contains the name of the shipowner and thename of the charter; the name, nationality, class, tonnage and capacity of theship; the trading area, the employment of the ship and the charter period; thetime, place and condition of delivery and redelivery; the survey, maintenanceand repair of the ship; the hire and its payment; the insurance of the ship;the time and condition for the termination of the charter and other relevantmatters.

 

Article 146

The shipowner shall deliver the ship and its certificates to the chartererat the port or place and time as stipulated in the charter party. At the timeof delivery, the shipowner shall exercise due diligence to make the ship seaworthy.

The ship delivered shall be fit for the agreed service.

Where the shipowner acts against the provisions of the precedingparagraph, the charterer shall be entitled to cancel the charter and claim anylosses resulting therefrom.

 

Article 147

The charterer shall be responsible for the maintenance and repair of theship during the bareboat charter period.

 

Article 148

During the bareboat charter period, the ship shall be insured, at thevalue agreed upon in the charter and in the way consented to by the shipowner,by the charterer at his expense.

 

Article 149

During the bareboat charter period, if the charterer's possession,employment or operation of the ship has affected the interests of the shipowneror caused any losses thereto, the charterer shall be liable for eliminating theharmful effect or compensating for the losses.

Should the ship be arrested due to any disputes over its ownership ordebts owned by the shipowner, the shipowner shall guarantee that the interestof the charterer is not affected. The shipowner shall be liable forcompensation for any losses suffered by the charterer thereby.

 

Article 150

During the bareboat charter period, the charterer shall not assign therights and obligations stipulated in the charter or sublet the ship underbareboat charter without the shipowner's consent in writing.

 

Article 151

The shipowner shall not establish any mortgage of the ship during thebareboat charter period without the prior consent in writing by the charterer.

Where the shipowner acts against the provisions of the preceding paragraphand thereby causes losses to the charterer, the shipowner shall be liable forcompensation.

 

Article 152

The charterer shall pay the hire as stipulated in the charter. In defaultof payment by the charterer for seven consecutive days or more after the timeas agreed in the charter for such payment, the shipowner is entitled to cancelthe charter without prejudice to any claim for the loss arising from thecharterer's default.

Should the ship be lost or missing, payment of hire shall cease from theday when the ship was lost or last heard of. Any hire paid in advance shall berefunded in proportion.

 

Article 153

The provisions of Article 134, paragraph 1 of Article 135, Article 142 andArticle 143 of this Code shall be applicable to bareboat charter parties.

 

Article 154

The ownership of a ship under bareboat charter containing a lease-purchaseclause shall be transferred to the charterer when the charterer has paid offthe lease-purchase price to the shipowner as stipulated in the charter.

 

CHAPTER VII CONTRACT OF SEA TOWAGE
Article 155

A contract of sea towage is a contract whereby the tugowner undertakes totow an object by sea with a tug from one place to another and the tow partypays the towage.

The provisions of this Chapter shall not be applicable to the towage servicerendered to ships within the port area.

 

Article 156

A contract of sea towage shall be made in writing. Its contents shallmainly include name and address of the tugowner, name and address of the towparty, name and main particulars of the tug and name and main particulars ofthe object to be towed, horse power of the tug, place of commencement of thetowage and the destination, the date of commencement of the towage, towageprice and the way of payment thereof, as well as other relevant matters.

 

Article 157

The tugowner shall, before and at the beginning of the towage, exercisedue diligence to make the tug seaworthy and towworthy and to properly man thetug and equip it with gears and tow lines and to provide all other necessarysupplies and appliances for the intended voyage.

The two party shall, before and at the beginning of the towage, make allnecessary preparations therefor and shall exercise due diligence to make theobject to be towed towworthy and shall give a true account of the object to betowed and provide the certificate of towworthiness and other documents issuedby the relevant survey and inspection organizations.

 

Article 158

If before the commencement of the towage service, due to force majeure orother causes not attributable to the fault of either party, the towage contractcould not be performed, either party may cancel the contract and neither shallbe liable to the other. In such event, the towage price that had already beenpaid shall be returned to the tow party by the tugowner, unless otherwiseagreed upon in the towage contract.

 

Article 159

If after the commencement of the towage service, due to force majeure orother causes not attributable to the fault of either party, the towage contractcould not be performed, either party may cancel the towage contract and neithershall be liable to the other.

 

Article 160

Where the object towed could not reach its destination due to forcemajeure or other causes not attributable to the fault of either party, unlessthe towage contract provides otherwise, the tugowner may deliver the objecttowed to the two party or its agent at a place near the destination or at asafe port or an anchorage chosen by the Master of the tug, and the contract oftowage shall be deemed to have been fulfilled.

 

Article 161

Where the tow party fails to pay the towage price or other reasonableexpenses as agreed, the tugowner shall have a lien on the object towed.

 

Article 162

In the course of the sea towage, if the damage suffered by the tugowner orthe two party was caused by the fault of one of the parties, the party in faultshall be liable for compensation. If the damage was caused by the faults ofboth parties, both parties shall be liable for compensation in proportion tothe extent of their respective faults.

Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the tugownershall not be liable if the proves that the damage suffered by the tow party isdue to one of the following causes:

(1) Fault of the Master or other crew members of the tug or the pilot orother servants or agents of the tugowner in the navigation and management ofthe tug:

(2) Fault of the tug in saving or attempting to save life or property atsea.

The provisions of this Article shall only apply if and when there are noprovisions or no different provisions in this regard in the sea towagecontract.

 

Article 163

If death of or personal injury to a third party or damage to propertythereof has occurred during the sea towage due to the fault of the tugowner orthe tow party, the tugowner and the tow party shall be liable jointly andseverally to that third party. Except as otherwise provided for in the towagecontract, the party that has jointly and severally paid a compensation in anamount exceeding the proportion for which it is liable shall have the right ofrecourse against the other party.

 

Article 164

Where a tugowner towing a barge owned or operated by him to transportgoods by sea from one port to another, it shall be deemed as an act of carriageof goods by sea.

 

Article 165

Collision of ships means an accident arising from the touching of ships atsea or in other navigable waters adjacent thereto. Ships referred to in thepreceding paragraph shall include those non- military or public service shipsor craft that collide with the ships mentioned in Article 3 of this Code.

 

Article 166

After a collision, the Master of each of the ships in collision is bound,so far as he can do so without serious danger to his ship and persons on boardto render assistance to the other ship and persons on board.

The Master of each of the ships in collision is likewise bound so far aspossible to make known to the other ship the name of his ship, its port of registry,port of departure and port of destination.

 

Article 167

Neither of the parties shall be liable to the other if the collision iscaused by force majeure or other causes not attributable to the fault of eitherparty or if the cause thereof is left in doubt.

 

Article 168

If the collision is caused by the fault of one of the ships, the one infault shall be liable therefor.

 

Article 169

If the colliding ships are all in fault, each ship shall be liable inproportion to the extent of its fault; if the respective faults are equal inproportion or it is impossible to determine the extent of the proportion of therespective faults, the liability of the colliding ships shall be apportionedequally.

The ships in fault shall be liable for the damage to the ship, the goodsand other property on board pursuant to the proportions prescribed in thepreceding paragraph. Where damage is caused to the property of a third party,the liability for compensation of any of the colliding ships shall not exceedthe proportion it shall bear.

If the ships in fault have caused loss of life or personal injury to athird party, they shall be jointly and severally liable therefor. If a ship haspaid an amount of compensation in excess of the proportion prescribed inparagraph 1 of this Article, it shall have the right of recourse against theother ship(s) in fault.

 

Article 170

Where a ship has caused damage to another ship and persons, goods or otherproperty on board that ship, either by the execution or non-execution of amanoeuvre or by the non-observance of navigation regulations, even if nocollision has actually occurred, the provisions of this Chapter shall apply.

 

Article 171

The provisions of this Chapter shall apply to salvage operations renderedat sea or any other navigable waters adjacent thereto to ships and otherproperty in distress.

 

Article 172

For the purposes of this Chapter:

(1) "Ship" means any ship referred to in Article 3 of this Codeand any other non-military, public service ship or craft that has been involvedin a salvage operation therewith;

(2) "Property" means any property not permanently andintentionally attached to the shoreline and includes freight at risk.

(3) "Payment" means any reward, remuneration or compensation forsalvage operations to be paid by the salved party to the salvor pursuant to theprovisions of this Chapter.

 

Article 173

The provisions of this Chapter shall not apply to fixed or floatingplatforms or mobile offshore drilling units when such platforms or units are onlocation engaged in the exploration, exploitation or production of sea-bedmineral resources.

 

Article 174

Every Master is bound, so far as he can do so without serious danger tohis ship and persons on board, to render assistance to any person in danger ofbeing lost at sea.

 

Article 175

A contract for salvage operations at sea is concluded when an agreementhas been reached between the salvor and the salved party regarding the salvageoperations to be undertaken.

The Master of the ship in distress shall have the authority to conclude acontract for salvage operations on behalf of the shipowner. The Master of theship in distress or its owner shall have the authority to conclude a contractfor salvage operations on behalf of the owner of the property on board.

 

Article 176

The salvage contract may be modified by a judgment of the court which hasentertained the suit brought by either party, or modified by an award of thearbitration organization to which the dispute has been submitted forarbitration upon the agreement of the parties, under any of the followingcircumstances:

(1) The contract has been entered into under undue influence or theinfluence of danger and its terms are obviously inequitable;

(2) The payment under the contract is in an excessive degree too large ortoo small for the services actually rendered.

 

Article 177

During the salvage operation, the salvor shall owe a duty to the salvedparty to:

(1) Carry out the salvage operation with due care;

(2) Exercise due care to prevent or minimize the pollution damage to theenvironment;

(3) Seek the assistance of other salvors where reasonably necessary;

(4) Accept the reasonable request of the salved party to seek theparticipation in the salvage operation of other salvors. However, if therequest is not well-founded, the amount of payment due to the original salvorshall not be affected.

 

Article 178

During the salvage operation, the party salved is under an obligation tothe salvor to:

(1) Cooperate fully with the salvor;

(2) Exercise due care to prevent or minimize the pollution damage to theenvironment;

(3) Promptly accept the request of the salvor to take delivery of the shipor property salved when such ship or property has been brought to a place ofsafety.

 

Article 179

Where the salvage operations rendered to the distressed ship and otherproperty have had a useful result, the salvor shall be entitled to a reward.Except as otherwise provided for by Article 182 of this Code or by other lawsor the salvage contract, the salvor shall not be entitled to the payment if thesalvage operations have had no useful result.

 

Article 180

The reward shall be fixed with a view to encouraging salvage operations,taking into full account the following criteria:

(1) Value of the ship and other property salved;

(2) Skill and efforts of the salvors in preventing or minimizing thepollution damage to the environment;

(3) Measure of success obtained by the salvors;

(4) Nature and extent of the danger;

(5) Skill and efforts of the salvors in salving the ship, other propertyand life;

(6) Time used and expenses and losses incurred by the salvors;

(7) Risk of liability and other risks run by the salvors or theirequipment;

(8) Promptness of the salvage services rendered by the salvors;

(9) Availability and use of ships or other equipment intended for salvageoperations;

(10) State of readiness and efficiency of the salvors' equipment and thevalue thereof.

The reward shall not exceed the value of the ship and other propertysalved.

 

Article 181

The salved value of the ship and other property means the assessed valueof the ship and other property salved or the proceeds of the sale thereof,after deduction of the relevant taxes and customs dues, quarantine expenses,inspection charges as well as expenses incurred in connection with thedischarge, storage, assessment of the value and the sale thereof.

The value prescribed in the preceding paragraph does not include the valueof the salved personal belongings of the crew and that of the cabin luggage ofthe passengers.

 

Article 182

If the salvor has carried out the salvage operations in respect of a shipwhich by itself or its goods threatened pollution damage to the environment andhas failed to earn a reward under Article 180 of this Code at least equivalentto the special compensation assessable in accordance with this Article, heshall be entitled to special compensation from the owner of that ship equivalentto his expenses as herein defined.

If the salvor has carried out the salvage operations prescribed in thepreceding paragraph and has prevented or minimized pollution damage to theenvironment, the special compensation payable by the owner to the salvor underparagraph 1 of this Article may be increased by an amount up to a maximum of30% of the expenses incurred by the salvor. The court which has entertained thesuit or the arbitration organization may, if it deems fair and just and takinginto consideration the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 180 of this Code,render a judgment or an award further increasing the amount of such specialcompensation, but in no event shall the total increase be more than 100% of theexpenses incurred by the salvor.

The salvor's expenses referred to in this Article means the salvor'sout-of-pocket expenses reasonably incurred in the salvage operation and thereasonable expenses for the equipment and personnel actually used in thesalvage operation. In determining the salvor's expenses, the provisions ofsub-paragraphs (8), (9) and (10) of paragraph 1 of Article 180 of this Codeshall be taken into consideration.

Under all circumstances, the total special compensation provided for inthis Article shall be paid only if such compensation is greater than the rewardrecoverable by the salvor under Article 180 of this Code, and the amount to bepaid shall be the difference between the special compensation and the reward.If the salvor has been negligent and has thereby failed to prevent or minimizethe pollution damage to the environment, the salvor may be totally or partlydeprived of the right to the special compensation.

Nothing in this Article shall affect the right of recourse on the part ofthe shipowner against any other parties salved.

 

Article 183

The salvage reward shall be paid by the owners of the salved ship andother property in accordance with the respective proportions which the salvedvalues of the ship and other property bear to the total salved value.

 

Article 184

The distribution of salvage reward among the salvors taking part in thesame salvage operation shall be made by agreement among such salvors on thebasis of the criteria set out in Article 180 of this Code; failing suchagreement, the matter may be brought before the court hearing the case forjudgment, or, upon the agreement of the parties, submitted to the arbitrationorganization for an award.

 

Article 185

The salvors of human life may not demand any remuneration from those whoselives are saved. However, salvors of human life are entitled to a fair share ofthe payment awarded to the salvors for salving the ship or other property orfor preventing or mainimizing the pollution damage to the environment.

 

Article 186

The following salvage operations shall not be entitled to remuneration:

(1) The salvage operation is carried out as a duty to normally perform atowage contract or other service contract, with the exception, however, ofproviding special services beyond the performance of the above said duty.

(2) The salvage operation is carried out in spite of the express andreasonable prohibition on the part of the Master of the ship in distress, theowner of the ship in question and the owner of the other property.

 

Article 187

Where the salvage operations have become necessary or more difficult dueto the fault of the salvor or where the salvor has committed fraud or otherdishonest conduct, the salvor shall be deprived of the whole or part of thepayment payable to him.

 

Article 188

After the completion of the salvage operation, the party salved shall, atthe request of the salvor, provide satisfactory security for salvage reward andother charges.

Without prejudice to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the ownerof the ship salved shall, before the release of the goods, make best endeavoursto cause the owners of the property salved to provide satisfactory security forthe share of the payment that they ought to bear.

Without the consent of the salvor, the ship or other property salved shallnot be removed from the port or place at which they first arrived after thecompletion of the salvage operation, until satisfactory security has beenprovided with respect to the ship or other property salved, as demanded by thesalvor.

 

Article 189

The court or the arbitration organization handling the salvor's claim forpayment may, in light of the specific circumstances and under fair and justterms, decide or make an award ordering the party salved to pay on account anappropriate amount to the salvor.

On the basis of the payment on account made by the party salved inaccordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the securityprovided under Article 188 of this Code shall be reduced accordingly.

 

Article 190

If the party salved has neither made the payment nor provided satisfactorysecurity for the ship and other property salved after 90 days of the salvage,the salvor may apply to the court for an order on forced sale by auction. Withrespect to the ship or the property salved that cannot be kept or cannot beproperly kept, or the storage charge to be incurred may exceed its value, thesalvor may apply for an earlier forced sale by auction.

The proceeds of the sale shall, after deduction of the expenses incurredfor the storage and sale, be used for the payment in accordance with theprovisions of this Code. The remainder, if any, shall be returned to the partysalved, and, if there is no way to return the remainder or if the remainder hasnot been claimed after one year of the forced sale, it shall go to the StateTreasury. In case of any deficiency, the salvor has the right of recourseagainst the party salved.

 

Article 191

The provisions of this Chapter shall apply to the salvor's right to thepayment for the salvage operations carried out between the ships of the sameowner.

 

Article 192

With respect to the salvage operations performed or controlled by therelevant competent authorities of the State, the salvors shall be entitled toavail themselves of the rights and remedies provided for in this Chapter inrespect of salvage operations.

 

Article 193

General average means the extraordinary sacrifice or expenditureintentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for thepurpose of preserving from peril the ship, goods or other property involved ina common maritime adventure.

Loss or damage sustained by the ship or goods through delay, whether onthe voyage or subsequently, such as demurrage and loss of market as well asother indirect losses, shall not be admitted as general average.

 

Article 194

When a ship, after having been damaged in consequence of accident,sacrifice or other extraordinary circumstances, shall have entered a port orplace of refuge or returned to its port or place of loading to effect repairswhich are necessary for the safe prosecution of the voyage, then the portcharges paid, the wages and maintenance of the crew incurred and the fuel andstores consumed during the extra period of detention in such port or place, aswell as the loss or damage and charges arising from the discharge, storage,reloading and handling of the goods, fuel, stores and other property on boardin order to have the repairs done shall be allowed as general average.

 

Article 195

Any extra expense incurred in place of another expense which would havebeen allowed as general average shall be deemed to be general average and soallowed, but the amount of such expense incurred shall not be in excess of thegeneral average expense avoided.

 

Article 196

The onus of proof shall be upon the party claiming in general average toshow that the loss or expense claimed is properly allowable as general average.

 

Article 197

Rights to contribution in general average shall not be affected, thoughthe event which gave rise to the sacrifice or expenditure may have been due tothe fault of one of the parties to the adventure. However, this shall notprejudice any remedies or defences which may be open against or to that partyin respect of such fault.

 

Article 198

The amounts of sacrifice of the ship, the goods and the freight shall berespectively determined as follows:

(1) The amount of sacrifice of the ship shall be calculated on the basisof the repair cost of the ship actually paid, from which any reasonablededuction in respect of "new for old" being made. Where the ship hasnot been repaired after the sacrifice, the amount of sacrifice thereof shall becalculated on the basis of the reasonable reduced value of ship after thegeneral average sacrifice. Such amount shall not exceed the estimated cost ofrepair.

Where the ship is an actual total loss or where the cost of repair wouldexceed the value of the ship after the repair, the amount of sacrifice of theship shall be calculated on the basis of the estimated sound value of the ship,less the estimated cost of repair not allowable as general average, as well asthe value of the ship after the damage.

(2) The amount of sacrifice of the goods already lost shall be calculatedon the basis of the value of the goods at the time of shipment plus insuranceand freight, from which the freight that need not be paid due to the sacrificemade being deducted. For the damaged goods that had already been sold before anagreement was reached on the extent of the damage sustained, the amount ofsacrifice thereof shall be calculated on the basis of the difference betweenthe value of the goods at the time of shipment plus insurance and freight, andthe net proceeds of the goods so sold.

(3) The amount of sacrifice of the freight shall be calculated on thebasis of the amount of loss of freight on account of the sacrifice of thegoods, from which the operating expenses that ought to be paid in order to earnsuch freight but need not be paid because of the sacrifice shall be deducted.

 

Article 199

The contribution in general average shall be made in proportion to thecontributory values of the respective beneficiaries.

The contributory value in general average by the ship, goods and freightshall be determined as follows:

(1) The contributory value of the ship shall be calculated on the basis ofthe sound value of the ship at the place where the voyage ends, from which anydamage that does not come under general average sacrifice being deducted;alternately, the actual value of the ship at the place where the voyage ends,plus the amount of general average sacrifice.

(2) The contributory value of the goods shall be calculated on the basisof the value of the goods at the time of shipment plus insurance and freight, fromwhich the damage that does not come under the general average sacrifice and thecarrier's freight at risk being deducted. Where the goods had been sold beforeits arrival at the port of destination, its value for contribution shall be thenet proceeds plus the amount of general average sacrifice.

Passenger's luggage and personal belongings shall not be included in thevalue for contribution.

(3) The contributory value of freight shall be calculated on the basis ofthe amount of freight at the risk of the carrier and which the carrier isentitled to collect at the end of the voyage, less any expense incurred for theprosecution of the voyage after the general average, in order to earn thefreight, plus the amount of general average sacrifice.

 

Article 200

Goods undeclared or wrongfully declared shall be liable for thecontribution to general average, but the special sacrifice sustained by suchgoods shall not be allowed as general average.

Where the value of the goods has been improperly declared at a value belowits actual value, the contribution to general average shall be made on thebasis of their actual value and, where a general average sacrifice hasoccurred, the amount of sacrifice shall be calculated on the basis of thedeclared value.

 

Article 201

Interest shall be allowed on general average sacrifice and general averageexpenses paid on account. A commission shall be allowed for the general averageexpenses paid on account, except those for the wages and maintenance of thecrew and fuel and store consumed.

 

Article 202

The contributing parties shall provide security for general averagecontribution at the request of the parties that have an interest therein.

Where the security has been provided in the form of cash deposits, suchdeposits shall be put in a bank by an average adjuster in the name of atrustee.

The provision, use and refund of the deposits shall be without prejudiceto the ultimate liability of the contributing parties.

 

Article 203

The adjustment of general average shall be governed by the averageadjustment rules agreed upon in the relevant contract. In the absence of suchan agreement in the contract, the relevant provisions contained in this Chaptershall apply.

 

CHAPTER XI LIMITATION OF LIABILITY FOR MARITIME CLAIMS
Article 204

Shipowners and salvors may limit their liability in accordance with theprovisions of this Chapter for claims set out in Article 207 of this Code.

The shipowners referred to in the preceding paragraph shall include thecharterer and the operator of a ship.

 

Article 205

If the claims set out in Article 207 of this Code are not made againstshipowners or salvors themselves but against persons for whose act, neglect ordefault the shipowners or salvors are responsible, such persons may limit theirliability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter.

 

Article 206

Where the assured may limit his liability in accordance with theprovisions of this Chapter, the insurer liable for the maritime claims shall beentitled to the limitation of liability under this Chapter to the same extentas the assured.

 

Article 207

Except as provided otherwise in Article 208 and 209 of this Code, withrespect to the following maritime claims, the person liable may limit hisliability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, whatever the basisof liability may be:

(1) Claims in respect of loss of life or personal injury or loss of ordamage to property including damage to harbour works, basins and waterways andaids to navigation occurring on board or in direct connection with theoperation of the ship or with salvage operations, as well as consequentialdamages resulting therefrom;

(2) Claims in respect of loss resulting from delay in delivery in thecarriage of goods by sea or from delay in the arrival of passengers or theirluggage;

(3) Claims in respect of other loss resulting from infringement of rightsother than contractual rights occurring in direct connection with the operationof the ship or salvage operations;

(4) Claims of a person other than the person liable in respect of measurestaken to avert or minimize loss for which the person liable may limit hisliability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, and further losscaused by such measures.

All the claims set out in the preceding paragraph, whatever the way theyare lodged, may be entitled to limitation of liability. However, with respectto the remuneration set out in sub-paragraph (4) for which the person liablepays as agreed upon in the contract, in relation to the obligation for payment,the person liable may not invoke the provisions on limitation of liability ofthis Article.

 

Article 208

The provisions of this Chapter shall not be applicable to the followingclaims:

(1) Claims for salvage payment or contribution in general average;

(2) Claims for oil pollution damage under the International Convention onCivil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage to which the People's Republic ofChina is a party;

(3) Claims for nuclear damage under the International Convention onLimitation of Liability for Nuclear Damage to which the People's Republic ofChina is a party;

(4) Claims against the shipowner of a nuclear ship for nuclear damage;

(5) Claims by the servants of the shipowner or salvor, if under the lawgoverning the contract of employment, the shipowner or salvor is not entitledto limit his liability or if he is by such law only permitted to limit hisliability to an amount greater than that provided for in this Chapter.

 

Article 209

A person liable shall not be entitled to limit his liability in accordancewith the provisions of this Chapter, if it is proved that the loss resultedfrom his act or omission done with the intent to cause such loss or recklesslyand with knowledge that such loss would probably result.

 

Article 210

The limitation of liability for maritime claims, except as otherwiseprovided for in Article 211 of this Code, shall be calculated as follows:

(1) In respect of claims for loss of life or personal injury:

a) 333,000 Units of Account for a ship with a gross tonnage ranging from300 to 500 tons;

b) For a ship with a gross tonnage in excess of 500 tons, the limitationunder a) above shall be applicable to the first 500 tons and the followingamounts in addition to that set out under a) shall be applicable to the grosstonnage in excess of 500 tons:

For each ton from 501 to 3,000 tons: 500 Units of Account;

For each ton from 3,001 to 30,000 tons: 333 Units of Account;

For each ton from 30,001 to 70,000 tons: 250 Units of Account;

For each ton in excess of 70,000 tons: 167 Units of Account.

(2) In respect of claims other than that for loss of life or personalinjury:

a) 167,000 Units of Account for a ship with a gross tonnage ranging from300 to 500 tons;

b) For a ship with a gross tonnage in excess of 500 tons, the limitationunder a) above shall be applicable to the first 500 tons, and the followingamounts in addition to that under a) shall be applicable to the part in excessof 500 tons:

For each ton from 501 to 30,000 tons:167 Units of Account;

For each ton from 30,001 to 70,000 tons: 125 Units of Account;

For each ton in excess of 70,000 tons: 83 Units of Account.

(3) Where the amount calculated in accordance with sub-paragraph (1) aboveis insufficient for payment of claims for loss of life or personal injury setout therein in full, the amount calculated in accordance with sub-paragraph (2)shall be available for payment of the unpaid balance of claims undersub-paragraph (1), and such unpaid balance shall rank rateably with claims setout under sub-paragraph (2).

(4) However, without prejudice to the right of claims for loss of life orpersonal injury under sub-paragraph (3), claims in respect of damage to harbourworks, basins and waterways and aids to navigation shall have priority overother claims under sub-paragraph (2).

(5) The limitation of liability for any salvor not operating from any shipor for any salvor operating solely on the ship to, or in respect of which, heis rendering salvage services, shall be calculated according to a gross tonnageof 1,500 tons.

The limitation of liability for ships with a gross tonnage not exceeding300 tons and those engaging in transport services between the ports of thePeople's Republic of China as well as those for other coastal works shall beworked out by the competent authorities of transport and communications underthe State Council and implemented after its being submitted to and approved bythe State Council.

 

Article 211

In respect of claims for loss of life or personal injury to passengerscarried by sea, the limitation of liability of the shipowner thereof shall bean amount of 46,666 Units of Account multiplied by the number of passengerswhich the ship is authorized to carry according to the ship's relevantcertificate, but the maximum amount of compensation shall not exceed 25,000,000Units of Account.

The limitation of liability for claims for loss of life or personal injuryto passengers carried by sea between the ports of the People's Republic ofChina shall be worked out by the competent authorities of transport andcommunications under the State Council and implemented after its beingsubmitted to and approved by the State Council.

 

Article 212

The limitation of liability under Article 210 and 211 of this Code shallapply to the aggregate of all claims that may arise on any given occasionagainst shipowners and salvors themselves, and any person for whose act,neglect or fault the shipowners and the salvors are responsible.

 

Article 213

Any person liable claiming the limitation of liability under this Code mayconstitute a limitation fund with a court having jurisdiction. The fund shallbe constituted in the sum of such an amount set out respectively in Articles210 and 211, together with the interest thereon from the date of the occurrencegiving rise to the liability until the date of the constitution of the fund.

 

Article 214

Where a limitation fund has been constituted by a person liable, anyperson having made a claim against the person liable may not exercise any rightagainst any assets of the person liable. Where any ship or other propertybelonging to the person constituting the fund has been arrested or attached,or, where a security has been provided by such person, the court shall orderwithout delay the release of the ship arrested or the property attached or thereturn of the security provided.

 

Article 215

Where a person entitled to limitation of liability under the provisions ofthis Chapter has a counter-claim against the claimant arising out of the sameoccurrence, their respective claims shall be set off against each other and theprovisions of this Chapter shall only apply to the balance, if any.

 

CHAPTER XII CONTRACT OF MARINE INSURANCE
Article 216

A contract of marine insurance is a contract whereby the insurerundertakes, as agreed, to indemnify the loss to the subject matter insured andthe liability of the insured caused by perils covered by the insurance againstthe payment of an insurance premium by the insured.

The covered perils referred to in the preceding paragraph mean anymaritime perils agreed upon between the insurer and the insured, includingperils occurring in inland rivers or on land which is related to a maritimeadventure.

 

Article 217

A contract of marine insurance mainly includes:

(1) Name of the insurer;

(2) Name of the insured;

(3) Subject matter insured;

(4) Insured value;

(5) Insured amount;

(6) Perils insured against and perils excepted;

(7) Duration of insurance coverage;

(8) Insurance premium.

 

Article 218

The following items may come under the subject matter of marine insurance;

(1) Ship;

(2) Cargo;

(3) Income from the operation of the ship including freight, charter hireand passenger's fare;

(4) Expected profit on cargo;

(5) Crew's wages and other remuneration;

(6) Liabilities to a third person;

(7) Other property which may sustain loss from a maritime peril and theliability and expenses arising therefrom.

The insurer may reinsure the insurance of the subject matter enumerated inthe preceding paragraph. Unless otherwise agreed in the contract, the originalinsured shall not be entitled to the benefit of the reinsurance.

 

Article 219

The insurable value of the subject matter insured shall be agreed uponbetween the insurer and the insured.

where no insurable value has been agreed upon between the insurer and theinsured, the insurable value shall be calculated as follows:

(1) The insurable value of the ship shall be the value of the ship at thetime when the insurance liability commences, being the total value of theship's hull, machinery, equipment, fuel, stores, gear, provisions and freshwater on board as well as the insurance premium;

(2) The insurable value of the cargo shall be the aggregate of the invoicevalue of the cargo or the actual value of the non-trade commodity at the placeof shipment, plus freight and insurance premium when the insurance liabilitycommences;

(3) The insurable value of the freight shall be the aggregate of the totalamount of freight payable to the carrier and the insurance premium when theinsurance liability commences;

(4) The insurable value of other subject matter insured shall be the aggregateof the actual value of the subject matter insured and the insurance premiumwhen the insurance liability commences.

 

Article 220

The insured amount shall be agreed upon between the insurer and theinsured.

The insured amount shall not exceed the insured value. Where the insuredamount exceeds the insured value, the portion in excess shall be null and void.

 

Section 2 Conclusion, Termination and Assignment of Contract
Article 221

A contract of marine insurance comes into being after the insured puts fortha proposal for insurance and the insurer agrees to accept the proposal and theinsurer and the insured agrees on the terms and conditions of the insurance.The insurer shall issue to the insured an insurance policy or other certificateof insurance in time, and the contents of the contract shall be containedtherein.

 

Article 222

Before the contract is concluded, the insured shall truthfully inform theinsurer of the materials circumstances which the insured has knowledge of orought to have knowledge of in his ordinary business practice and which may havea bearing on the insurer in deciding the premium or whether be agrees to insureor not.

The insured need not inform the insurer of the facts which the insurer hasknown of or the insurer ought to have knowledge of in his ordinary businesspractice if about which the insurer made no inquiry.

 

Article 223

Upon failure of the insured to truthfully inform the insurer of thematerial circumstances set forth in paragraph 1 of Article 222 of this Code dueto his intentional act, the insurer has the right to terminate the contractwithout refunding the premium. The insurer shall not be liable for any lossarising from the perils insured against before the contract is terminated.

If, not due to the insured's intentional act, the insured did nottruthfully inform the insurer of the material circumstances set out inparagraph 1 of Article 222 of this Code, the insurer has the right to terminatethe contract or to demand a corresponding increase in the premium. In case thecontract is terminated by the insurer, the insurer shall be liable for the lossarising from the perils insured against which occurred prior to the terminationof the contract, except where the material circumstances uninformed or wronglyinformed of have an impact on the occurrence of such perils.

 

Article 224

Where the insured was aware or ought to be aware that the subject matterinsured had suffered a loss due to the incidence of a peril insured againstwhen the contract was concluded, the insurer shall not be liable forindemnification but shall have the right to the premium. Where the insurer wasaware or ought to be aware that the occurrence of a loss to the subject matterinsured due to a peril insured against was impossible, the insured shall havethe right to recover the premium paid.

 

Article 225

Where the insured concludes with several insurers for the same subjectmatter insured and against the same risk, and the insured amount of the saidsubject matter insured thereby exceeds the insured value, then, unlessotherwise agreed in the contract, the insured may demand indemnification fromany of the insurers and the aggregate amount to be indemnified shall not exceedthe loss value of the subject matter insured. The liability of each insurershall be in proportion to that which the amount he insured bears to the totalof the amounts insured by all insurers. Any insurer who has paid anindemnification in an amount greater than that for which he is liable, shallhave the right of recourse against those who have not paid theirindemnification in the amounts for which they are liable.

 

Article 226

Prior to the commencement of the insurance liability, the insured maydemand the termination of the insurance contract but shall pay the handling feesto the insurer, and the insurer shall refund the premium.

 

Article 227

Unless otherwise agreed in the contract, neither the insurer nor theinsured may terminate the contract after the commencement of the insuranceliability.

Where the insurance contract provides that the contract may be terminatedafter the commencement of the liability, and the insured demands thetermination of the contract, the insurer shall have the right to the premiumpayable from the day of the commencement of the insurance liability to the dayof termination of the contract and refund the remaining portion. If it is theinsurer who demands the termination of the contract, the unexpired premium fromthe day of the termination of the contract to the day of the expiration of theperiod of insurance shall be refunded to the insured.

 

Article 228

Notwithstanding the stipulations in Article 227 of this Code, the insuredmay not demand termination of the contract for cargo insurance and voyageinsurance on ship after the commencement of the insurance liability.

 

Article 229

A contract of marine insurance for the carriage of goods by sea may beassigned by the insured by endorsement or otherwise, and the rights andobligations under the contract are assigned accordingly. The insured and theassignee shall be jointly and severally liable for the payment of the premiumif such premium remains unpaid up to the time of the assignment of thecontract.

 

Article 230

The consent of the insurer shall be obtained where the insurance contractis assigned in consequence of the transfer of the ownership of the shipinsured. In the absence of such consent, the contract shall be terminated fromthe time of the transfer of the ownership of the ship. Where the transfer takesplace during the voyage, the contract shall be terminated when the voyage ends.

Upon termination of the contract, the insurer shall refund the unexpiredpremium to the insured calculated from the day of the termination of thecontract to the day of its expiration.

 

Article 231

The insured may conclude an open cover with the insurer for the goods tobe shipped or received in batches within a given period. The open cover shallbe evidenced by an open policy to be issued by the insurer.

 

Article 232

The insurer shall, at the request of the insured, issued insurancecertificates separately for the cargo shipped in batches according to the opencover.

Where the contents of the insurance certificates issued by the insurerseparately differ from those of the open policy, the insurance certificatesissued separately shall prevail.

 

Article 232

The insurer shall, at the request of the insured, issue insurancecertificates separately for the cargo shipped in batches according to the opencover.

Where the contents of the insurance certificates issued by the insurerseparately differ from those of the open policy, the insurance certificatesissued separately shall prevail.

 

Article 233

The insured shall notify the insurer immediately on learning that thecargo insured under the open cover has been shipped or has arrived. The itemsto be notified of shall include the name of the carrying ship, the voyage, thevalue of the cargo and the insured amount.

 

Section 3 Obligation of the Insured
Article 234

Unless otherwise agreed in the insurance contract, the insured shall paythe premium immediately upon conclusion of the contract. The insurer may refuseto issue the insurance policy or other insurance certificate before the premiumis paid by the insured.

 

Article 235

The insured shall notify the insurer in writing immediately where theinsured has not complied with the warranties under the contract. The insurermay, upon receipt of the notice, terminate the contract or demand an amendmentto the terms and conditions of the insurance coverage or an increase in thepremium.

 

Article 236

Upon the occurrence of the peril insured against, the insured shall notifythe insurer immediately and shall take necessary and reasonable measures toavoid or minimize the loss. Where special instructions for the adoption ofreasonable measures to avoid or minimize the loss are received from theinsurer, the insured shall act according to such instructions.

The insurer shall not be liable for the extended loss caused by theinsured's breach of the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

 

Section 4 Liability of the Insurer

Article 237
The insurer shall indemnify the insured promptly after the loss from a perilinsured against has occurred.

 

Article 238

The insurer's indemnification for the loss from the peril insured againstshall be limited to the insured amount. Where the insured amount is lower thanthe insured value, the insurer shall indemnify in the proportion that theinsured amount bears to the insured value.

 

Article 239

The insurer shall be liable for the loss to the subject matter insuredarising from several perils insured against during the period of the insuranceeven though the aggregate of the amounts of loss exceeds the insured amount.However, the insurer shall only be liable for the total loss where the totalloss occurs after the partial loss which has not been repaired.

 

Article 240

The insurer shall pay, in addition to the indemnification to be paid withregard to the subject matter insured, the necessary and reasonable expensesincurred by the insured for avoiding or minimizing the loss recoverable underthe contract, the reasonable expenses for survey and assessment of the valuefor the purpose of ascertaining the nature and extent of the peril insured againstand the expenses incurred for acting on the special instructions of theinsurer.

The payment by the insurer of the expenses referred to in the precedingparagraph shall be limited to that equivalent to the insured amount.

Where the insured amount is lower than the insured value, the insurershall be liable for the expenses referred to in this Article in the proportionthat the insured amount bears to the insured value, unless the contractprovides otherwise.

 

Article 241

Where the insured amount is lower than the value for contribution underthe general average, the insurer shall be liable for the general averagecontribution in the proportion that the insured amount bears to the value forcontribution.

 

Article 242

The insurer shall not be liable for the loss caused by the intentional actof the insured.

 

Article 243

Unless otherwise agreed in the insurance contract, the insurer shall notbe liable for the loss of or damage to the insured cargo arising from any ofthe following causes:

(1) Delay in the voyage or in the delivery of cargo or change of marketprice;

(2) Fair wear and tear, inherent vice or nature of the cargo;

(3) Improper packing.

 

Article 244

Unless otherwise agreed in the insurance contract, the insurer shall notbe liable for the loss of or damage to the insured ship arising from any of thefollowing causes:

(1) Unseaworthiness of the ship at the time of the commencement of thevoyage, unless where under a time policy the insured has no knowledge thereof;

(2) Wear and tear or corrosion of the ship.

The provisions of this Article shall apply mutatis mutandis to theinsurance of freight.

 

Section 5 Loss of or Damage to the Subject Matter Insured

and Abandonment

Article 245

Where after the occurrence of a peril insured against the subject matterinsured is lost or is so seriously damaged that it is completely deprived ofits original structure and usage or the insured is deprived of the possessionthereof, it shall constitute an actual total loss.

 

Article 246

Where a ship's total loss is considered to be unavoidable after theoccurrence of a peril insured against or the expenses necessary for avoidingthe occurrence of an actual total loss would exceed the insured value, it shallconstitute a constructive total loss.

Where an actual total loss is considered to be unavoidable after the cargohas suffered a peril insured against, or the expenses to be incurred foravoiding the total actual loss plus that for forwarding the cargo to itsdestination would exceed its insured value, it shall constitute a constructivetotal loss.

 

Article 247

Any loss other than an actual total loss or a constructive total loss is apartial loss.

 

Article 248

Where a ship fails to arrive at its destination within a reasonable timefrom the place where it was last heard of, unless the contract providesotherwise, if it remains unheard of upon the expiry of two months, it shallconstitute missing. Such missing shall be deemed to be an actual total loss.

 

Article 249

Where the subject matter insured has become a constructive total loss andthe insured demands indemnification from the insurer on the basis of a totalloss, the subject matter insured shall be abandoned to the insurer. The insurermay accept the abandonment or choose not to, but shall inform the insured ofhis decision whether to accept the abandonment within a reasonable time.

The abandonment shall not be attached with any conditions. Once theabandonment is accepted by the insurer, it shall not be withdrawn.

 

Article 250

Where the insurer has accepted the abandonment, all rights and obligationsrelating to the property abandoned are transferred to the insurer.

 

Article 251

After the occurrence of a peril insured against and before the payment ofindemnity, the insurer may demand that the insured submit evidence andmaterials related to the ascertainment of the nature of the peril and theextent of the loss.

 

Article 252

Where the loss of or damage to the subject matter insured within theinsurance converage is caused by a third person, the right of the insured todemand compensation from the third person shall be subrogated to the insurerfrom the time the indemnity is paid.

The insured shall furnish the insurer with necessary documents andinformation that should come to his knowledge and shall endeavour to assist theinsurer in pursuing recovery from the third person.

 

Article 253

Where the insured waives his right of claim against the third personwithout the consent of the insurer or the insurer is unable to exercise theright of recourse due to the fault of the insured, the insurer may make acorresponding reduction from the amount of indemnity.

 

Article 254

In effecting payment of indemnity to the insured, the insurer may make acorresponding reduction therefrom of the amount already paid by a third personto the insured.

Where the compensation obtained by the insurer from the third personexceeds the amount of indemnity paid by the insurer, the part in excess shallbe returned to the insured.

 

Article 255

After the occurrence of a peril insured against, the insurer is entitledto waive his right to the subject matter insured any pay the insured the amountin full to relieve himself of the obligations under the contract.

In exercising the right prescribed in the preceding paragraph, the insurershall notify the insured thereof within seven days from the day of the receiptof the notice from the insured regarding the indemnity. The insurer shall remainliable for the necessary and reasonable expenses paid by the insured foravoiding or minimizing the loss prior to his receipt of the said notice.

 

Article 256

Except as stipulated in Article 255 of this Code, where a total lossoccurs to the subject matter insured and the full insured amount is paid, theinsurer shall acquire the full right to the subject matter insured. In the caseof under-insurance, the insurer shall acquire the right to the subject matterinsured in the proportion that the insured amount bears to the insured value.

 

Article 257

The Limitation period for claims against the carrier with regard to thecarriage of goods by sea is one year, counting from the day on which the goodswere delivered or should have been delivered by the carrier. Within thelimitation period or after the expiration thereof, if the person allegedlyliable has brought up a claim of recourse against a third person, that claim istime-barred at the expiration of 90 days, counting from the day on which theperson claiming for the recourse settled the claim, or was served with a copyof the process by the court handling the claim against him.

The limitation period for claims against the carrier with regard to voyagecharter party is two years, counting from the day on which the claimant knew orshould have known that his right had been infringed.

 

Article 258

The limitation period for claims against the carrier with regard to thecarriage of passengers by sea is two years, counting respectively as follows:

(1) Claims for personal injury: Counting from the day on which thepassenger disembarked or should have disembarked;

(2) Claims for death of passengers that occurred during the period ofcarriage: Counting from the day on which the passenger should have disembarked;whereas those for the death of passengers that occurred after thedisembarkation but resulted from an injury during the period of carriage bysea, counting from the day of the death of the passenger concerned, providedthat this period does not exceed three years from the time of disembarkation.

(3) Claims for loss of or damage to the luggage: Counting from the day ofdisembarkation or the day on which the passenger should have disembarked.

 

Article 259

The limitation period for claims with regard to charter parties is twoyears, counting from the day on which the claimant knew or should have knownthat his right had been infringed.

 

Article 260

The limitation period for claims with regard to sea towage is one year,counting from the day on which the claimant knew or should have known that hisright had been infringed.

 

Article 261

The limitation period for claims with regard to collision of ships is twoyears, counting from the day on which the collision occurred. The limitationperiod for claims with regard to the right of recourse as provided for inparagraph 3 of Article 169 of this Code is one year, counting from the day onwhich the parties concerned jointly and severally paid the amount ofcompensation for the damage occurred.

 

Article 262

The limitation period for claims with regard to salvage at sea is twoyears, counting from the day on which the salvage operation was completed.

 

Article 263

The limitation period for claims with regard to contribution in generalaverage is one year, counting from the day on which the adjustment wasfinished.

 

Article 264

The limitation period for claims with regard to contracts of marineinsurance is two years, counting from the day on which the peril insuredagainst occurred.

 

Article 265

The limitation period for claims with regard to compensation for oilpollution damage from ships is three years, counting from the day on which thepollution damage occurred. However, in no case shall the limitation periodexceed six years, counting from the day on which the accident causing thepollution occurred.

 

Article 266

Within the last six months of the limitation period if, on account offorce majeure or other causes preventing the claims from being made, thelimitation period shall be suspended. The counting of the limitation periodshall be resumed when the cause of suspension no longer exists.

 

Article 267

The limitation of time shall be discontinued as a result of bringing anaction or submitting the case for arbitration by the claimant or the admissionto fulfill obligations by the person against whom the claim was brought up.However, the limitation of time shall not be discontinued if the claimantwithdraws his action or his submission for arbitration, or his action has beenrejected by a decision of the court.

Where the claimant makes a claim for the arrest of a ship, the limitationof time shall be discontinued from the day on which the claim is made.

The limitation period shall be counted anew from the time ofdiscontinuance.

 

CHAPTER XIV APPLICATION OF LAW IN RELATION TO FOREIGN-RELATED MATTERS

Article 268

If any international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People'sRepublic of China contains provisions differing from those contained in thisCode, the provisions of the relevant international treaty shall apply, unlessthe provisions are those on which the People's Republic of China has announcedreservations. International practice may be applied to matters for whichneither the relevant laws of the People's Republic of China nor anyinternational treaty concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China containany relevant provisions.

 

Article 269

The parties to a contract may choose the law applicable to such contract,unless the law provides otherwise. Where the parties to a contract have notmade a choice, the law of the country having the closest connection with thecontract shall apply.

 

Article 270

The law of the flag State of the ship shall apply to the acquisition,transfer and extinction of the ownership of the ship.

 

Article 271

The law of the flag State of the ship shall apply to the mortgage of theship.

The law of the original country of registry of a ship shall apply to themortgage of the ship if its mortgage is established before or during itsbareboat charter period.

 

Article 272

The law of the place where the court hearing the case is located shallapply to matters pertaining to maritime liens.

 

Article 273

The law of the place where the infringing act is committed shall apply toclaims for damages arising from collision of ships.

The law of the place where the court hearing the case is located shallapply to claims for damages arising from collision of ships on the high sea.

If the colliding ships belong to the same country, no matter where thecollision occurs, the law of the flag State shall apply to claims against oneanother for damages arising from such collision.

 

Article 274

The law where the adjustment of general average is made shall apply to theadjustment of general average.

 

Article 275

The law of the place where the court hearing the case is located shallapply to the limitation of liability for maritime claims.

 

Article 276

The application of foreign laws or international practices pursuant to theprovisions of this Chapter shall not jeopardize the public interests of thePeople's Republic of China.

 

CHAPTER XV SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
Article 277

The Unit of Account referred to in this Code is the Special Drawing Rightas defined by the International Monetary Fund; the amount of the Chinesecurrency (RMB) in terms of the Special Drawing Right shall be that computed onthe basis of the method of conversion established by the authorities in chargeof foreign exchange control of this country on the date of the judgment by thecourt or the date of the award by the arbitration organization or the datemutually agreed upon by the parties.

 

Article 278

This Code shall come into force as of July 1, 1993.

 

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 《中华人民共和国外商投资法》

Foreign Investment Law of the People's Republic of China

 

(2019年3月15日第十三届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过)
(Adopted at the 2nd session of the 13th National People's Congress on March 15, 2019) 

目 录
Table of Contents

第一章 总则
Chapter I General Provisions


第二章 投资促进
Chapter II Investment Promotion


第三章 投资保护
Chapter III Investment Protection


第四章 投资管理
Chapter IV Investment Management


第五章 法律责任
Chapter V Legal Liability


第六章 附 则
Chapter VI Supplementary Provisions

 

第一章 总则
Chapter I General Provisions

第一条 为了进一步扩大对外开放,积极促进外商投资,保护外商投资合法权益,规范外商投资管理,推动形成全面开放新格局,促进社会主义市场经济健康发展,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 1 In order to further expand opening up, actively promote foreign investment, protect the legitimate rights and interests of foreign investment, standardize foreign investment management, facilitate the formation of a comprehensive and new opening-up pattern, and promote the healthy development of the socialist market economy, this Law is enacted in accordance with the Constitution.

第二条 在中华人民共和国境内(以下简称中国境内)的外商投资,适用本法。
Article 2 This Law applies to foreign investment in the territory of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as “within the territory of China”).

本法所称外商投资,是指外国的自然人、企业或者其他组织(以下称外国投资者)直接或者间接在中国境内进行的投资活动,包括下列情形:
Foreign investment mentioned in this Law refers to the investment activities of foreign natural persons, enterprises or other organizations (hereinafter referred to as foreign investors) directly or indirectly within the territory of China, including the following:

(一)外国投资者单独或者与其他投资者共同在中国境内设立外商投资企业;
(1) Foreign investors set up foreign-invested enterprises in China alone or jointly with other investors;


(二)外国投资者取得中国境内企业的股份、股权、财产份额或者其他类似权益;
(2) Foreign investors obtain shares, equities, property shares or other similar rights and interests of enterprises within the territory of China;


(三)外国投资者单独或者与其他投资者共同在中国境内投资新建项目;
(3) Foreign investors investing in new projects in China alone or jointly with other investors;


(四)法律、行政法规或者国务院规定的其他方式的投资。
(4) Other investment prescribed by laws, administrative regulations or specified by the State Council.

 

本法所称外商投资企业,是指全部或者部分由外国投资者投资,依照中国法律在中国境内经登记注册设立的企业。
Foreign-invested enterprises mentioned in this Law refer to enterprises that are wholly or partly invested by foreign investors and registered within the territory of China under the Chinese laws.

第三条 国家坚持对外开放的基本国策,鼓励外国投资者依法在中国境内投资。
Article 3 The State adheres to the basic State policy of opening to the outside world and encouraging foreign investors to invest within the territory of China.

国家实行高水平投资自由化便利化政策,建立和完善外商投资促进机制,营造稳定、透明、可预期和公平竞争的市场环境。
The State maintains a policy of high-level investment liberalization and facilitation, establishes and improves a mechanism for foreign investment promotion, and creates a stable, transparent, predictable and fair market environment.

第四条 国家对外商投资实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理制度。
Article 4 The State maintains a system of pre-entry national treatment plus a negative list management for foreign investment.

前款所称准入前国民待遇,是指在投资准入阶段给予外国投资者及其投资不低于本国投资者及其投资的待遇;所称负面清单,是指国家规定在特定领域对外商投资实施的准入特别管理措施。国家对负面清单之外的外商投资,给予国民待遇。
The pre-entry national treatment mentioned in the preceding paragraph refers to the treatment given to foreign investors and their investment at the stage of investment admission no less than that to domestic investors and their investments; the so-called negative list refers to the special management measures that are adopted for the admission of foreign investment in specific areas. The State gives national treatment to foreign investment outside the negative list.

负面清单由国务院发布或者批准发布。
The negative list is issued or approved by the State Council.

中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约、协定对外国投资者准入待遇有更优惠规定的,可以按照相关规定执行。
Where international treaties or agreements concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China provide for more preferential treatments for the admission of foreign investment, the relevant provisions may be applied.

第五条 国家依法保护外国投资者在中国境内的投资、收益和其他合法权益。
Article 5 The State protects the investment, income and other legitimate rights and interests of foreign investors in China in accordance with the law.

第六条 在中国境内进行投资活动的外国投资者、外商投资企业,应当遵守中国法律法规,不得危害中国国家安全、损害社会公共利益。
Article 6 Foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises that conduct investment activities within China shall abide by Chinese laws and regulations and shall not endanger China's national security and harm the public interest.

第七条 国务院商务主管部门、投资主管部门按照职责分工,开展外商投资促进、保护和管理工作;国务院其他有关部门在各自职责范围内,负责外商投资促进、保护和管理的相关工作。
Article 7 The competent departments ofthe State Council responsible for commerce and investment shall, in accordance with the division of responsibilities, carry out the promotion, protection and management of foreign investment; other relevant departments of the State Council shall, within their respective responsibilities, be responsible for the affairs related to the promotion, protection and management of foreign investment.

县级以上地方人民政府有关部门依照法律法规和本级人民政府确定的职责分工,开展外商投资促进、保护和管理工作。
The relevant departments of the local people's governments at or above the county level shall, in accordance with laws and regulations and the division of responsibilities determined by the people's government at the same level, carry out the work relating to the promotion, protection and management of foreign investment.

第八条 外商投资企业职工依法建立工会组织,开展工会活动,维护职工的合法权益。外商投资企业应当为本企业工会提供必要的活动条件。
Article 8 Employees of foreign-invested enterprises may, in accordance with law, establish trade union organizations, carry out trade union activities, and safeguard their legitimate rights and interests. Foreign-invested enterprises shall provide necessary conditions for the trade unions thereof.

 

第二章 投资促进
Chapter II Investment Promotion

第九条 外商投资企业依法平等适用国家支持企业发展的各项政策。
Article 9 Foreign-invested enterprises may, in accordance with the law, equally enjoy the State policies concerning the support of enterprise development.

第十条 制定与外商投资有关的法律、法规、规章,应当采取适当方式征求外商投资企业的意见和建议。
Article 10 Before the formulation of laws, regulations and rules related to foreign investment, appropriate measures shall be taken to solicit opinions and suggestions from foreign-invested enterprises.

与外商投资有关的规范性文件、裁判文书等,应当依法及时公布。
Normative and adjudicative documents related to foreign investment shall, according to law, be made public in a timely manner.

第十一条 国家建立健全外商投资服务体系,为外国投资者和外商投资企业提供法律法规、政策措施、投资项目信息等方面的咨询和服务。
Article 11 The State establishes and improves a system serving foreign investment to provide consultation and services to foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises on laws and regulations, policy measures, and investment project information.

第十二条 国家与其他国家和地区、国际组织建立多边、双边投资促进合作机制,加强投资领域的国际交流与合作。
Article 12 The State establishes multilateral and bilateral investment promotion cooperation mechanisms with other countries and regions and international organizations, and strengthens international exchanges and cooperation in the field of investment.

第十三条 国家根据需要,设立特殊经济区域,或者在部分地区实行外商投资试验性政策措施,促进外商投资,扩大对外开放。
Article 13 The State may establish special economic zones where needed, or adopt experimental policies and measures for foreign investment in selected regions with a view to promoting foreign investment and expanding opening-up.

第十四条 国家根据国民经济和社会发展需要,鼓励和引导外国投资者在特定行业、领域、地区投资。外国投资者、外商投资企业可以依照法律、行政法规或者国务院的规定享受优惠待遇。
Article 14 The State may, in accordance with the needs of national economic and social development, encourage and guide foreign investors to invest in specific industries, sectors and regions. Foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises may enjoy preferential treatment in accordance with laws, administrative regulations or the provisions of the State Council.

第十五条 国家保障外商投资企业依法平等参与标准制定工作,强化标准制定的信息公开和社会监督。
Article 15 The State ensures that foreign-invested enterprises have equal access to the standard-setting work according to law, and strengthens information disclosure and social supervision regarding standard-setting.

国家制定的强制性标准平等适用于外商投资企业。
The mandatory standards set forth by the State are equally applicable to foreign-invested enterprises.

第十六条 国家保障外商投资企业依法通过公平竞争参与政府采购活动。政府采购依法对外商投资企业在中国境内生产的产品、提供的服务平等对待。
Article 16 The State ensures that foreign-invested enterprises have equal access to government procurement through fair competition in accordance with the law. Products and services provided by foreign-invested enterprises within the territory of China are equally treated in government procurement in accordance with law.

第十七条 外商投资企业可以依法通过公开发行股票、公司债券等证券和其他方式进行融资。
Article 17 Foreign-invested enterprises may, in accordance with the law, finance through public offering of stocks, corporate bonds and other securities.

第十八条 县级以上地方人民政府可以根据法律、行政法规、地方性法规的规定,在法定权限内制定外商投资促进和便利化政策措施。
Article 18 Local people's governments at or above the county level may, in accordance with the provisions of laws, administrative regulations and local regulations, formulate policies and measures for foreign investment promotion and facilitation within their statutory competence.

第十九条 各级人民政府及其有关部门应当按照便利、高效、透明的原则,简化办事程序,提高办事效率,优化政务服务,进一步提高外商投资服务水平。
Article 19 The people's governments at all levels and their relevant departments shall, in accordance with the principles of facilitation, efficiency and transparency, simplify procedures, improve efficiency, optimize government services, and further improve the level of foreign investment services.

有关主管部门应当编制和公布外商投资指引,为外国投资者和外商投资企业提供服务和便利。
The relevant competent authorities shall prepare and publish foreign investment guidelines to provide services and facilities to foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises.

 

第三章 投资保护
Chapter III Investment Protection

第二十条 国家对外国投资者的投资不实行征收。
Article 20 The State does not expropriate foreign investment.

在特殊情况下,国家为了公共利益的需要,可以依照法律规定对外国投资者的投资实行征收或者征用。征收、征用应当依照法定程序进行,并及时给予公平、合理的补偿。
Under extraordinary circumstances, the State may expropriate and requisition the investment of foreign investors in accordance with the law and for the needs of the public interest. The expropriation and requisition shall be conducted in accordance with legal procedures and timely and reasonable compensation shall be given.

第二十一条 外国投资者在中国境内的出资、利润、资本收益、资产处置所得、知识产权许可使用费、依法获得的补偿或者赔偿、清算所得等,可以依法以人民币或者外汇自由汇入、汇出。
Article 21 Foreign investors' capital contribution, profits, capital gains, assets disposal income, intellectual property license fees, legally obtained damages or compensation, liquidation proceeds, etc., may be freely remitted to overseas in RMB or foreign exchange according to law.

第二十二条 国家保护外国投资者和外商投资企业的知识产权,保护知识产权权利人和相关权利人的合法权益;对知识产权侵权行为,严格依法追究法律责任。
Article 22 The State protects the intellectual property rights of foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises, protects the legitimate rights and interests of intellectual property rights holders and related rights holders, and holds intellectual property rights infringers legally accountable in strict accordance with the law.

国家鼓励在外商投资过程中基于自愿原则和商业规则开展技术合作。技术合作的条件由投资各方遵循公平原则平等协商确定。行政机关及其工作人员不得利用行政手段强制转让技术。
The State encourages technical cooperation based on the voluntariness principle and commercial rules in the process of foreign investment. The conditions for technical cooperation are determined by equal negotiation between the parties to the investment inaccordance with the principle of fairness. Administrative agencies and their staff are prohibited to use administrative means to force any technology transfer.

第二十三条 行政机关及其工作人员对于履行职责过程中知悉的外国投资者、外商投资企业的商业秘密,应当依法予以保密,不得泄露或者非法向他人提供。
Article 23 The administrative organs and their staff shall keep confidential the business secrets known to them, of foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises during the performance of their duties, and shall not disclose or illegally provide them to others.

第二十四条 各级人民政府及其有关部门制定涉及外商投资的规范性文件,应当符合法律法规的规定;没有法律、行政法规依据的,不得减损外商投资企业的合法权益或者增加其义务,不得设置市场准入和退出条件,不得干预外商投资企业的正常生产经营活动。
Article 24 The people's governments at all levels and their relevant departments shall be in compliance with the provisions of laws and regulations in formulating normative documents concerning foreign investment; unless authorized by laws and administrative regulations, they shall not derogate from the legitimate rights and interests of foreign-invested enterprises or increase their obligations, set forth conditions for market access and exit, and interfere with normal production and operation of foreign-invested enterprises.

第二十五条 地方各级人民政府及其有关部门应当履行向外国投资者、外商投资企业依法作出的政策承诺以及依法订立的各类合同。
Article 25 Local people's governments at all levels and their relevant departments shall honor their commitments on policies made available to foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises under the law and various types of contracts concluded in accordance with the law.

因国家利益、社会公共利益需要改变政策承诺、合同约定的,应当依照法定权限和程序进行,并依法对外国投资者、外商投资企业因此受到的损失予以补偿。
If policy commitments or contractual agreements need to be changed for the State interests and public interests, they shall be conducted in accordance with the statutory authority and procedures, and foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises shall be compensated for the losses they suffered accordingly.

第二十六条 国家建立外商投资企业投诉工作机制,及时处理外商投资企业或者其投资者反映的问题,协调完善相关政策措施。
Article 26 The State establishes a complaint and settlement mechanism for foreign-invested enterprises, with a view to promptly handling problems raised by foreign-invested enterprises or their investors, and coordinating and improving relevant policies and measures.

外商投资企业或者其投资者认为行政机关及其工作人员的行政行为侵犯其合法权益的,可以通过外商投资企业投诉工作机制申请协调解决。
If a foreign-invested enterprise or its investors believe that the administrative actions of the administrative organ and its staff infringe upon their legitimate rights and interests, they may apply for a coordinated solution through the complaint and settlement mechanism for the foreign-invested enterprise.

外商投资企业或者其投资者认为行政机关及其工作人员的行政行为侵犯其合法权益的,除依照前款规定通过外商投资企业投诉工作机制申请协调解决外,还可以依法申请行政复议、提起行政诉讼。
If a foreign-invested enterprise or its investors believe that the administrative actions of the administrative organ and its staff infringe upon their legitimate rights and interests, in addition to applying for a coordinated solution through the complaint and settlement mechanism for the foreign-invested enterprise in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, they may also apply for administrative reconsideration and file an administrative lawsuit according to law.

第二十七条 外商投资企业可以依法成立和自愿参加商会、协会。商会、协会依照法律法规和章程的规定开展相关活动,维护会员的合法权益。

Article 27 Foreign-invested enterprises may establish and voluntarily participate in chambers of commerce and associations according to law. The chamber of commerce and association shall carry out relevant activities in accordance with the laws, regulations and its articles of association to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of its members.


第四章 投资管理
Chapter IV Investment Management

第二十八条 外商投资准入负面清单规定禁止投资的领域,外国投资者不得投资。
Article 28 Foreign investors shall not invest in the areas where investment is prohibited under the negative list for the admission of foreign investment .

外商投资准入负面清单规定限制投资的领域,外国投资者进行投资应当符合负面清单规定的条件。
Foreign investors shall meet the conditions set forth in the negative list for the admission of foreign investment to invest in the areas where investment is restricted under the negative list.

外商投资准入负面清单以外的领域,按照内外资一致的原则实施管理。
Management of foreign investment in the areas beyond the negative list shall be implemented in accordance with the principle of equality between domestic and foreign investment.

第二十九条 外商投资需要办理投资项目核准、备案的,按照国家有关规定执行。
Article 29 If foreign investment is required to go through the approval or investment project record procedure, it shall be implemented in accordance with relevant provisions.

第三十条 外国投资者在依法需要取得许可的行业、领域进行投资的,应当依法办理相关许可手续。
Article 30 If a foreign investor invests in an industry or sector where legal permission is required for investment, it shall go through relevant licensing procedures in accordance with the law.

有关主管部门应当按照与内资一致的条件和程序,审核外国投资者的许可申请,法律、行政法规另有规定的除外。
The relevant competent department shall, in accordance with the conditions and procedures equally applied to domestic investment, review the foreign investors' application for permission, except as otherwise provided by laws and administrative regulations.

第三十一条 外商投资企业的组织形式、组织机构及其活动准则,适用《中华人民共和国公司法》、《中华人民共和国合伙企业法》等法律的规定。
Article 31 Forms of organization, organization structures and activities of foreign-invested enterprises shall be governed by the provisions of the Company Law and the Law of the Partnership Enterprise of the People's Republic of China.

第三十二条 外商投资企业开展生产经营活动,应当遵守法律、行政法规有关劳动保护、社会保险的规定,依照法律、行政法规和国家有关规定办理税收、会计、外汇等事宜,并接受相关主管部门依法实施的监督检查。
Article 32 Foreign-invested enterprises that engage in production and business activities shall abide by the provisions of laws and administrative regulations concerning labor protection and social insurance, and handle matters such as taxation, accounting, foreign exchange, etc. in accordance with laws, administrative regulations and relevant provisions, and accept relevant supervision and inspection carried out by the relevant departments in accordance with the law.

第三十三条 外国投资者并购中国境内企业或者以其他方式参与经营者集中的,应当依照《中华人民共和国反垄断法》的规定接受经营者集中审查。
Article 33 If a foreign investor acquires a Chinese domestic enterprise or participates in the concentration of business operators in other ways, it shall go through the examination on the concentration of business operators in accordance with of the Anti-Monopoly Law of the People's Republic of China.

第三十四条 国家建立外商投资信息报告制度。外国投资者或者外商投资企业应当通过企业登记系统以及企业信用信息公示系统向商务主管部门报送投资信息。
Article 34 The State establishes a system for foreign investment information reporting. Foreign investors or foreign-invested enterprises shall submit investment information to the competent commerce departments through the enterprise registration system and the enterprise credit information publicity system.

外商投资信息报告的内容和范围按照确有必要的原则确定;通过部门信息共享能够获得的投资信息,不得再行要求报送。
The content and scope of the foreign investment information report shall be determined in accordance with the principle of necessity; the investment information that can be obtained through the inter-department information sharing system shall not be required to be submitted again.

第三十五条 国家建立外商投资安全审查制度,对影响或者可能影响国家安全的外商投资进行安全审查。
Article 35 The State establishes a system of security review for foreign investment to review the foreign investment that affects or may affect national security.

依法作出的安全审查决定为最终决定。
The security review decision made in accordance with the law is final.

 

第五章 法律责任
Chapter V Legal Liability

第三十六条 外国投资者投资外商投资准入负面清单规定禁止投资的领域的,由有关主管部门责令停止投资活动,限期处分股份、资产或者采取其他必要措施,恢复到实施投资前的状态;有违法所得的,没收违法所得。
Article 36 Where a foreign investor invests in the areas, which are specified by the negative list for the admission of foreign-investment as prohibited areas, the relevant competent department shall order it to stop the investment activities, and dispose of the shares, assets or take other necessary measures within a specified time limit, and restitute to the status before the investment was made; If there is illegal income, it shall be confiscated.

外国投资者的投资活动违反外商投资准入负面清单规定的限制性准入特别管理措施的,由有关主管部门责令限期改正,采取必要措施满足准入特别管理措施的要求;逾期不改正的,依照前款规定处理。
Where the investment activities of a foreign investor violates the special management measures for the admission of foreign-investment regarding restricted areas in the negative list, the relevant competent department shall order the correction within a specified time limit and take necessary measures to meet the conditions set forth by the special management measures for the admission of foreign-investment; if no corrections have been made within the time limit, the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be applied.

外国投资者的投资活动违反外商投资准入负面清单规定的,除依照前两款规定处理外,还应当依法承担相应的法律责任。
Where the investment activities of a foreign investor violates the special management measures for the admission of foreign-investment in the negative list, in addition to the provisions of the preceding two paragraphs, it shall also bear corresponding legal liabilities under the law.

第三十七条 外国投资者、外商投资企业违反本法规定,未按照外商投资信息报告制度的要求报送投资信息的,由商务主管部门责令限期改正;逾期不改正的,处十万元以上五十万元以下的罚款。
Article 37 If a foreign investor or a foreign-invested enterprise violates the provisions of this Law and fails to submit investment information in accordance with the requirements of the foreign investment information reporting system, the competent commerce department shall order it to make corrections within a specified time limit; if no corrections have been made within the time limit, a fine of more than 100,000 yuan and less than 500,000 yuan shall be imposed.

第三十八条 对外国投资者、外商投资企业违反法律、法规的行为,由有关部门依法查处,并按照国家有关规定纳入信用信息系统。
Article 38 Any violation of laws or regulations by foreign investors or foreign-invested enterprises shall be investigated and dealt with by relevant departments in accordance with the law and recorded into the credit information publicity system in accordance with relevant provisions.

第三十九条 行政机关工作人员在外商投资促进、保护和管理工作中滥用职权、玩忽职守、徇私舞弊的,或者泄露、非法向他人提供履行职责过程中知悉的商业秘密的,依法给予处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
Article 39 If a staff of an administrative organ abuses his power, neglects his duties or engages in malpractices in the promotion, protection and management of foreign investment, or leaks or illegally provides others with trade secrets that he or she knows in the course of performing his duties, he shall be punished according to law; if he commits a crime, he shall be held criminally responsible.

 

第六章 附 则
Chapter VI Supplementary Provisions

第四十条 任何国家或者地区在投资方面对中华人民共和国采取歧视性的禁止、限制或者其他类似措施的,中华人民共和国可以根据实际情况对该国家或者该地区采取相应的措施。
Article 40 If any country or region adopts discriminatory prohibitions, restrictions or other similar measures on the People's Republic of China, the People's Republic of China may take corresponding measures against the country or the region according to actual conditions.

第四十一条 对外国投资者在中国境内投资银行业、证券业、保险业等金融行业,或者在证券市场、外汇市场等金融市场进行投资的管理,国家另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 41 If the State provides other provisions for foreign investment in the banking, securities, insurance and other financial industries, or in the securities market, foreign exchange market and other financial markets within the territory of China, such provisions shall be applicable.

第四十二条 本法自2020年1月1日起施行。《中华人民共和国中外合资经营企业法》、《中华人民共和国外资企业法》、《中华人民共和国中外合作经营企业法》同时废止。
Article 42 This Law shall come into force on January 1, 2020. The Law of the People's Republic of China on Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures, the Law of the People's Republic of China on Wholly Foreign-owned Enterprises, and the Law of the People's Republic on Sino-Foreign Contractual Joint Ventures shall be repealed simultaneously.

本法施行前依照《中华人民共和国中外合资经营企业法》、《中华人民共和国外资企业法》、《中华人民共和国中外合作经营企业法》设立的外商投资企业,在本法施行后五年内可以继续保留原企业组织形式等。具体实施办法由国务院规定。
Foreign-invested enterprises that have been established before the implementation of this Law in accordance with the Law of the People's Republic of China on Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures, the Law of the People's Republic of China on Wholly Foreign-owned Enterprises, and the Law of the People's Republic of China on Sino-Foreign Contractual Joint Ventures may continue retaining their original forms of business organizations within five years after the implementation of this Law. The detailed implementation measures of this Law shall be prescribed by the State Council.



China lawyer-Legal service in China-Legal consultation of investing a project in China-International Trade Dispute Legal Service 


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Rengui Zhang Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 He has been working in Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm since September 2009 and has been practicing as a lawyer for 8 years. ]]> Jianhong Wu Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 With 10 years of experience as a lawyer, he is proficient in the handling of various economic and contract dispute cases and is good at defending criminal cases. ]]> Jinfeng Hou Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 He has been practicing for more than 10 years. He specializes in civil infringement disputes, traffic accident liability disputes, contract disputes and private lending disputes.]]> Zhenghong Lei Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 Since 2000, he has long been engaged in legal education and corporate legal work with rich practical experience.]]> Jie Ni Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 She is working in Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm, member of Lawyers Association of Zhejiang. 
Education background: She obtained a bachelor's degree.

Areas of specialization: civil law, criminal law, company law, contract law, labor law, international law.


Please contact us at info@zhengyunlawyer.com

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Jianxiong Bao Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 He is working in Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm, member of Lawyers Association of Zhejiang. 
Education background: He obtained a bachelor's degree.

Areas of specialization: civil law, criminal law, company law, contract law, labor law, international law.


Please contact us at info@zhengyunlawyer.com

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Lulu Zhang Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 She is working in Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm, member of Lawyers Association of Zhejiang. 
Education background: She obtained a Master's degree.

Areas of specialization: civil law, criminal law, company law, contract law, labor law, international law.


Please contact us at info@zhengyunlawyer.com

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Qingliang Zhu Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 Director of the Litigation Law Research Association of Zhejiang Law Society.
Director of Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm.
Education: Bachelor of Law.
Work experience: In 2000, he obtained a lawyer's qualification certificate. He has obtained a large number of criminal, civil and economic cases since he was a lawyer. He has worked as a lawyer for many enterprises and institutions.

Areas of specialization: civil law, criminal law, company law, contract law, labor law, judicial and arbitral proceedings.


Please contact us at info@zhengyunlawyer.com

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David An Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 He is working in Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm, member of Lawyers Association of Zhejiang.
Education background: He graduated from Zhejiang University in 2006 and obtained a Bachelor's degree.

Work experience: He has ten years of foreign trade work experience before working in the law firm.

Areas of specialization: civil law, criminal law, company law, contract law, labor law, international law.

Please contact us at info@zhengyunlawyer.com


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We sued the shipping company Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 We sued the shipping company and the freight forwarder on behalf of the consignee.


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We sued the supplier Tue,15 Oct 2019 01:41:09 +0800 We sued the supplier on behalf of the consignee for product quality issues.]]>